Παρασκευή, 28 Νοεμβρίου 2008

Ancient Macedonian Language

Australian Macedonian Advisory Council
November 28, 2008


The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Writing Systems defines a writing system as "a set of visible or tactile signs used to represent units of language in a systematic way". This simple explanation encompasses a large spectrum of writing systems, with vastly different stylistic and structural characteristics spanning across the many regions of the globe. Therefore the inscription or the script was, is and will be the major definition source of a language. There is no defined line between a language and a dialect, but it is often said that a language is a dialect with an army and a navy, a statement credited to Max Weinreich.

To the question what kind of language did the ancient Macedonians use, the answer can only be given based on the existing references in ancient documents, and the excavated inscriptions. What we have concluded is that the Ancient Macedonians were Hellenophon; the original dialect of the Hellenic language they used (Macedonian dialect) was very much similar to the Doric dialect (that is in accordance to Herodotus' references on the common origin of the Dorians and the Macedonians). Later on (in the Hellenistic era) that dialect was gradually replaced by the ´Koini Attiki´ dialect, just like in all of the other Greek city-states. Every native Macedonian name, is Hellenic and is formed in the Hellenic way of producing words, for example the names: ´Adista, Philista, Sostrata, Philotas, Perdikkas, Mahatas´ and many more.

The strongest evidence of the Greekness of the Macedonian dialect are:

The excavated inscriptions, where you find only Greek characters and words

The coins from Macedonia, where again you find only Greek characters and words

The many quotations and comments of the ancient writers on the Macedonians' speech

The characteristics of the Macedonian dialect

Etymology of names in Macedonia

A few years ago, a German linguist by the name Otto Hoffman wrote a book with the title "Makedonians, their language and their Ethnicity". Hoffman analyzed the paradoxical or idiomatic words (calling them languages), which past grammatical, lexicographers and more in general everyone engaged around the Hellenic language had noted them as "worthy to be analyzed" in ´Makedonia´.

According to Hoffman, his conclusions after "supervising" others work are:

"And now after supervising the ancient ´Makedonian´ linguistic thesaurus we are posting the decisive question, if what is adding to the ´Makedonian´ language its character, are the Hellenic or the barbarian elements of it, the response cannot be of any doubts. From the 39 ´languages´ that according to Gustav Mayer their form was ´completely alien´ has been proven after this research of mine, that 10 of them are clearly Hellenic; with 4 more possibly dialectical forms of common Hellenic words, so from the entire collection are remaining only 15 words appearing to be justifiable or at least suspected of anti-Hellenic origins. Adding to those 15, few others which with regards their vocals could be Hellenic, without till now being confirmed as such, then their number (in comparison to the number of pure Hellenic ones in the Macedonian language), is so small that the GENERAL HELLENIC CHARACTER OF THE ´MAKEDONIAN´ LINGUISTIC TREASURE CAN NOT BE DOUBTED."

Major evidence worth noting also involved the ancient theaters. It is a well-known fact that only the Ancient Greeks had theaters in Classical period, namely: Dion, Vergina, Philippi, and Thassos (all in Macedonia). The theater of Dion hosted the first performance (before an audience of Greek-speaking Macedonians), of Euripides world-famous tragedy ´Bacchae´, which he wrote while in Pella, Macedonia. Euripides died and was also buried in Macedonia.

The official code name given recently from linguistics is:

Ancient Macedonian language : provisional ISO-DIS 639-3.5 XMK).

Subgrouping Code : Ancient Greek language or IEGreekB

Group code: Greek Language or IEGreek.


The 6000 inscriptions that are found in Macedonia are freely available for anyone to analyze; as are the texts through the Epigraphical database:


What do we notice? All are in the Ancient Greek language of course!

One must note when performing a throughout analysis, that linguistically there is no real distinction between a dialect and a language without a specific factor. People commonly use a political motivator to determine whether a certain ´speech´ is a language or a dialect. Since the Pan-Hellenic area consisted of many small city-states (Attica, Lacedaemon, Corinth, etc.), and larger states (Molossia, Thesprotia, Macedonia, Acarnania, Aetolia, etc.), it was thought at the time, that the people of all those states were speaking different languages, when they were all in fact speaking variations of the same language i.e. Hellenic (or Greek). The most advanced of all Hellenic dialects was the dialect of Attica (Athens) or Attic. When referring to the "Ancient Greek language", the Attic dialect of Ancient Greek is implied, and any comparison of the Macedonian dialect to Ancient Greek is actually a comparison to the Attic dialect.

The difference between Macedonian and Attic was like the difference between Low and High German. Nobody doubts that both are Germanic languages, although they differ slightly. Multi-dialectal linguistic regime is also present in modern-day Italy. The official language of Italy is the Florentine dialect, yet people commonly still speak their own dialects. The same holds true in Modern Greece. The Cretans speak their own dialect, and for many Greeks it is difficult to understand this unique dialect.

As mentioned initially, German linguistic Hoffman, analyzes 40 official Macedonian names found on an inscription from 423 B.C:

""In final analysis it is possible that the name VYRGINON KRASTWNOS is of Thracian origins, while independent remains the name DIRVE.....ALL the other names are BEAUTIFUL, CLEAR, HELLENIC CONSTRUCTIONS and only two of them NEOPTOLEMOS and MELEAGROS could have been loans from the HELLENIC MYTHOLOGY."

Hoffman considers the names of the populations of upper or Western ´Makedonia´ including the Orestians (Kastoria), Eordians (Ptolemais-Arnissa), Tymfaians (Pindos-Konitsa), Elimiotians (Kozani), and Lyngestians (Florina-Monastiri).

He considers and analyzes the names of the King's body-guards, the generals, the administrative employees, the leaders of the ´Makedonian´ cavalry, the leaders of the army, and those of many other common people of the 5th and 4th and even later centuries.

His conclusions?


And continues:

""The general Hellenic character of the Makedonians linguistic treasure cannot be disputed even in case some of them might be loans from the Hellenic Mythology or from non-Hellenic myths or for the better pre-Hellenic myths (Teytamos-Marsyas-Seilinos*).

One strong archaeological evidence that depicts which language was spoken by the Ancient Macedonians is the Pella ´katadesmos´ (see picture below). A ´katadesmos´ is a curse, or magic spell, which is inscribed on a lead scroll probably dating to 380 - 350 BC. It was discovered in Pella (at the time capital of Macedon) in 1986; and was published in the Hellenic Dialectology Journal in 1993.

The tab has been dated by the original publishers to the "Mid-4th century BC or slightly earlier (letter forms, spelling)". This dating has been contested by Prof. Edmonds of Bryn Mawr College, who proposes a 3rd century BC date.

The former opinion is concurred by the Oxford Classical Dictionary, in which Professor Olivier Masson writes:

"Yet in contrast with earlier views which made of it {i.e. Macedonian} an Aeolic dialect (O.Hoffmann compared Thessalian) we must by now think of a link with North-West Greek (Locrian, Aetolian, Phocidian, Epirote). This view is supported by the recent discovery at Pella of a curse tablet (4th cent. BC) which may well be the first 'Macedonian' text attested (provisional publication by E.Voutyras; cf. the Bulletin Epigraphique in Rev. Et. Grec. 1994, no.413); the text includes an adverb "opoka" which is not Thessalian." (OCD, 1996, pp 905, 906).

Of the same opinion is James L. O'Neil's (University of Sydney) presentation at the 2005 Conference of the Australasian Society for Classical Studies, entitled "Doric Forms in Macedonian Inscriptions" (abstract):

"A fourth century BC curse tablet from Pella shows word forms which are clearly Doric, but a different form of Doric from any of the west Greek dialects of areas adjoining Macedon. Three other, very brief, fourth century inscriptions are also indubitably Doric. These show that a Doric dialect was spoken in Macedon, as we would expect from the West Greek forms of Greek names found in Macedon. And yet later Macedonian inscriptions are in Koine avoiding both Doric forms and the Macedonian voicing of consonants. The native Macedonian dialect had become unsuitable for written documents."

In English the text of Pella katasemos translates:

On Thetima and Dionysophon the ritual wedding and the marriage I bind by a written spell, as well as (the marriage) of all other women (to him), both widows and maidens, but above all of Thetima; and I entrust (this spell) to Macron and to the daimones. And if I was to ever dig up this tablet and read these words again, only then should Dionysophon marry, not before; may he indeed not take another beside myself, but let me alone grow old by the side of Dionysophon and no one else. I implore you: have pity for [Phila (?)], dear daimones, [for I am indeed bereft (?)] of all my dear ones and abandoned. But please keep this (piece of writing) for my sake so that these events do not happen and wretched Thetima perishes miserably [---] but let me become happy and blessed.


The 200 words are the words that recorded from the ancient writers and not those that found in the inscriptions (200 more). The majority are part of the Greek ´syntaxis´ sentences.

Relatively few words of the Macedonian dialect have been preserved, about 154 in fact, and are recorded by Athenaeus and in the Lexicon of Hesychios, who drew them mainly from the work of the Macedonian lexicographer Amerias. It should be noted that Ancient lexicographers did not record all the words of a language or dialect, but only those that presented a certain peculiarity or difficulty in comprehension. For this reason foreign words and idioms are recorded, and thus the proportion of foreign words is not representative of the total vocabulary of the Macedonian dialect. Many of the words which have been treasured as Macedonian occur in all Greek dialects, but in the Macedonian dialect they had a specific meaning and they were recorded by the Ancient lexicographers; for example the word ´υπασπιστής´ (adjutant).

These words that were handed down as Macedonian do not bear any resemblance to the Thracian-Illyrian language. The Macedonian linguistic material (proper names, place-names and common nouns) testifies to the Greek character of the Macedonian dialect as:

The etymology of the majority words is Greek (approx. 90%)

the features and vowel changes are common in Greek and so are the inflections and endings.

As for the few words which are recorded as Macedonian in the Lexicon of Hesyxhios and which are not considered by some to be Greek, it is most likely that they are loan-words, a phenomenon that is observed in all languages, and one which does not put their origin in doubt.

Also, there are another 200 words that found in several inscriptions (Posidipus, Pella katadaesmos, Dervinion papyrus e.t.c.) except of course those that recorded from the Ancient writers (about 154) that has the same characteristics.


In summary, we present five facts that prove the Greek origin of the Ancient Macedonian ´language´ (dialect):

Fact 1 - ISO Identification

Ancient Macedonian language (provisional ISO-DIS 639-3.5 XMK).

Subgrouping Code : Ancient Greek language or IEGreekB

Group code: Greek Language or IEGreek.

Fact 2 - Excavated inscriptions

Six-thousand inscriptions - the most famous being the Pella ´katadesmos´ and the ´Dervenion´ Papyrus (both in the Ancient Greek language).

Fact 3 - Words

The known Macedonian words have Greek roots (except very few) according to linguistics that have analyzed the ancient inscriptions (e.g. Pella ´katadesmos´).

Fact 4 - Evidence of non-Greek inscription

There has not yet been found any single non-Greek text; not only in Macedonia but also in the regions that Macedonians have interacted with.

Fact 5 - The Opposing side

None claim the opposite, as there is no evidence of any single Linguistic proof in order to support their theory of non-Greek speaking Macedonians.

Some people from FYROM (namely Stefov, Gandeto etc.) claim that the term ´makedonisti´ (Philotas trial) is what they interpret as "Macedonian language". Obviously, that is clearly wrong!

The term ´makedonisti´ is Greek, which doesn't mean ´Macedonian language´, but ´Macedonian way´ (in this case, of speech). It is a term that is found in many other Greek documents, and not only in the Macedonian case. For example, it can be found as ´attikisti´, implying the ´Attic way of speech´, the attic dialect, or, ´ionisti´ for the ionian dialect, or, ´doristi´ for the doric dialect. In that way, it is easy to reject the misleading FYROM interpretations of such extracts, because they are based on poor logic and on deliberate false interpretation in the translation of the ancient documents.

The Question I now pose to you is: "Was the Ancient Macedonian language (dialect) part of Ancient Greek?"

It is up to you to decide.

Written by Akritas

for MacedoniaOnTheWeb


Australian Macedonian Advisory Council

Proud indigenous Macedonians proud Greeks one people, one language, one culture, one country

Κυριακή, 23 Νοεμβρίου 2008

The "Slavic Philhellenic Network" has been established in Skoplje

The registration in court was done yesterday. The aims of the operation “Vardar-Axios” shall be:

1. Restitution of the Slavic identity of FYROM

2. Creation, promoting and archiving publications regarding Greek culture

3. Sponsorship of Classic and Byzantine studies

4. Struggle against Pseudomacedonism

This organization has 4 members, all of them anonymous, with the exception of Vasko. The site of SPN shall be launched in Wednesday 26-XI and it will serve as an online platform for publication and coordination of activities.

Source: MOTW


Παρασκευή, 21 Νοεμβρίου 2008

Risto Stefov and the falsification of Ancient Macedonia History Part IV

Australian Macedonian Advisory Council
November 20, 2008

As we emphatically pointed out in our previous article, the art of commiting provocative falsification and blatant violation of the historical reality finds full use into the propaganda originating from the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM). If we are looking for a pure sample of the deplorable "taking text out of context" method in order to misrepresent a source´s actual position, then one of the best candidates should definitely be one of the latest articles of Risto Stefov, ironically entitled "Greek Australian Advisory Council and the falsification of Ancient Macedonian history Part 9".

For example in one of the most comical writings you could ever read in your lives, as regards to ancient history, the author once more, attempts to isolate and take out of context a certain small number of references taken from the book "Plutarch The Age of Alexander" by Ian-Scott Kilvert.

First and foremost even the source he attempts to forge this time, is crystal clear about the Greek ethnicity of ancient Macedonians. For the sake of materiality, in page 3 of Ian-Scott Kilvert´s "Plutarch The Age of Alexander" - a "special edition" of Nine Lives roughly concomitant with Alexander and his time - we can read:

The Age of Alexander – Nine Greek lives by Plutarch

Right afterwards we read the names of these prominent nine Greeks of which the book deals with their Biographies.

Agesilaus – Pelopidas- Dion – Timoleon – Demosthenes – Phocion – Alexander – Demetrius – Pyrrhus

In other words, two of the Nine Greeks are Macedonian themselves. Inevitably, Risto Stefov continues to pursue a policy of constant self-contradictions since once more he tried to present a source which completely shatters his historical inaccuracies and contrarily to his erroneous claims, proves the Greekness of ancient Macedonians.

Secondly, the author employs a number of selected lines to draw connections to an alleged "implied ethnic distinction" but as usual, he fails to take account of the particular place, time and circumstance these lines apply, which often is crucial to understand what someone really means or intends to. Moreover he also fails to take account of even the other words or lines which immediately surround it with result the overall meaning to be quite different from the author´s agenda. The latter constitutes a blatant case of wilful distortion.

Take a look for instance to the first "unique finding" of Risto Stefov

1] "Alexander was born on the sixth day of the month Hecatombaeon, which the Macedonians call Lous, the same day on which the temple of Artemis at Ephesus was burned down." [p.254

The above quote underscores the ill-informed and quite amateurish notion of ancient history that currently prevails the author. Unfortunately Risto Stefov totally ignores that almost all places in the Greek world had their own distinct Calendars, yet some months were common among them. Quite indicatively if for a moment, someone was inclined to consider the author´s implication as valid then he should also conclude for instance that Delphi was not Greek since the Delphian calendar called the specific month Hyllaios and not Hecatombaeon.

In fact the month Lous/Loios was also a Thessalian month. I denote here that there are also Macedonian months whose names are shared with other Greeks, namely the calendars of Argos, Corinth, Epidaurus, Crete and Rhodes. Argives, Corinthians, Cretans, Epidaurians and Rhodians. In essence the ancient Macedonian calendar emphatically points out the Greekness of ancient Macedonians.

In the same manner, the rest of the absolutely selective and taken out of context, lines in the article of Risto Stefov, rely heavily on outrageous half truths, mainly dealing with the characteristical ignorance of the author with similar statements pertaining to "freed" or "enslaved" Greeks by the Atheneans, Spartans and others abound in ancient sources.

Plutarch "The Age of Alexander"

Penguin Classics

1] On his father´s side Alexander was descended from Hercules through Caranus, and on his mother´s from Aeacus through Neoptolemus: so much is accepted by all authorities without question.

(Plut. 7.2 page 252)

Point of Interest: The fact that Alexander was Greek by both his parents went unquestioned by all authorities]

2] The first was that his general Parmenio had overcome the Illyrians in a great battle, the second that his race-horse had won a victory in the Olympic games, and the third that Alexander had been born.

(Plut. 7.3, page 255)

Philip participated in Olympics during Classical Ages where only Greeks could take place since he was a Greek himself]

3]Philip for example was as proud of his powers of eloquence as any sophist, and took care to have the victories won by his chariots at Olympia stamped upon his coins.

(Plut. 7.4, page 256)

Philip as a proud Greek, had his victories in Olympics stamped on his coins]

4]The person who took on both the title and the role of Pedagogue was an Acarnanian named Lysimachus. He was neither an educated nor a cultivated man but he managed to ingratiate himself by calling Philip Peleus, Alexander Achilles, and himself Phoenix, and he held the second place in the prince´s household.

(Plut. 7.5, page 257)

The love of Philip and Alexander for anything Greek is apparent]

5]Besides this he considered that the task of training and educating his son was too important to be entrusted to the ordinary run of teachers of poetry, music and general education: it required as Sophocles puts it:

The rudder´s guidance and the curb´s restraint,

and so he sent for Aristotle, the most famous and learned of the philosophers of the time and rewarded him with the generocity that his reputation deserved.

(Plut. 7.7, page 258)

One of the most famous Greek philosophers, Aristotle was entrusted by Philip with the task of training and educating his son]

6] He [Alexander] regarded the Iliad as a handbook of the art of war and took with him on his campaigns a text annotated by Aristotle, which became as "the casket copy" and which he always kept under his pillow together with his dagger. When his campaigns had taken him far into the interior of Asia and he could find no other books, he ordered his treasurer Harpalus to send him some. Harpalus sent him the histories of Philistus, many of the tragedies of Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides and the dithyrambic poems of Telestes and Philoxenus.

(Plut 7.8, pages 259-260)

Alexander never hide his love for anything Greek]

7] During this period he [Alexander] defeated the Maedi who had risen in revolt, captured their city, drove out its barbarous inhabitants, established a colony of Greeks assembled from various regions and named it Alexandroupolis.

Plut. 7.9, page 260)

Here we have undisputed evidence of Macedonia´s Greekness. On one hand, the term "barbarians" is used only for Maedi, not Macedonians while on the other hand Alexander of course establishes a Greek colony since apparently he is Greek himself.]

7]There he [Philip] scolded his son and angrily reproached him for behaving so ignobly and so unworthily of his position as to wish to marry the daughter of a mere Carian, who was no more than the slave of a barbarian king.

(Plut. 7.10, page 262)

Point of interest: Philip uses the term barbarian for a foreign king. Its obvious Philip was Greek, otherwise he wouldnt use at all the derogatory remark if he was "barbarian" himself]

8]The neighbouring barbarian tribes were eager to throw off the Macedonian yoke and longed for the rule of their native kings.

(Plut. 7.11, page 263)

The difference between the "neighbouring barbarian tribes" and Macedonians is clear.]

9]As for the barbarian tribes they [Macedonians] considered that he [Alexander] should try to win them back to their allegiance by using milder methods.

(Plut. 7.11, page 263)

Again, Barbarians are being distinguished from Macedonians, even by Macedonians themselves]

10]In the previous year a congress of the Greek states had been held at the Isthmus of Corinth: here a vote had been passed that the states should join forces with Alexander in invading Persia and that he should be commander-in-chief of the expedition. Many of the Greek statesmen and philosophers visited him to offer their congratulations…

(Plut. 7.14, page 266)

Macedonia as a greek state took part in the congress held at Isthmus of Corinth. Alexander was voted to be commander-in-chief while many Greek statesmen and philosophers showed their joy about the event by offering him their congratulations.]

11] Once arrived in Asia, he [Alexander] went up to Troy, sacrificed to Athena and poured libations to the heroes of the Greek army. He annointed with oil the column which marks the grave of Achilles, ran a race by it naked with his companions, as the custom is, and then crowned it with a wreath: he also remarked that Achilles was happy in having found a faithful friend while he lived and a great poet to sing of his deeds after his death. While he was walking about the city and looking at its ancient remains, somebody asked him whether he wished to see the lyre which had once belonged to Paris. I think nothing of that lyre, he said, but i wish i could see Achilles´ lyre, which he played when he sang of the glorious deeds of brave men.

(Plut. 7.15, page 268)

First thing Alexander did while being in Asia was to honour the Greek heroes and his own ancestor Achilles]

12] "At the same time he [Alexander] was anxious to give the other Greek states a share in the victory. He therefore sent the Atheneans in particular three hundred of the shields captured from the enemy and over the rest of the spoils he had this proud inscription engraved:

Alexander, the son of Philip, and all the Greeks, with the exception of the Spartans, won these spoils of war from the barbarians who dwell in Asia."

(Plut. 7.16, page 270)

Needless to say much about it. Things are pretty clear. Alexander's inscription itself reveals Macedonians are Greeks]

13] It is said that there was a spring near the city of Xanthus in the province of Lycia, which at this moment overflowed and cast up from its depths a bronze tablet: this was inscribed with ancient characters which foretold tha the empire of the Persians would be destroyed by the Greeks. Alexander was encouraged by this prophecy and pressed on to clear the coast of Asia Minor as far as Cilicia and Phoenicia.

(Plut. 7.17, page 270)

No reason Alexander to be enouraged unless he was Greek himself. Another undisputable evidence of his Greekness]

14]he [Alexander] managed to extend it round the enemy´s left, outflanked it, and fighting in the foremost ranks, put the barbarians to flight.

(Plut. 7.20, page 274)

The dinstiction between Macedonians and Barbarians is obvious]

15] It was here that the Macedonians received their first taste of gold and silver and women and of the luxury of the Barbarian way of life.

(Plut 7.24, page 278)

Macedonians couldnt receive their first taste of the luxury of the Barbarian way of life if they were Barbarians themselves]

16] he [Alexander] dshed to the nearest camp fire, dispatched with his dagger the two barbarians who were sitting by it

(Plut. 7.24, page 280)

Another evidence Macedonians were Greeks and certainly not Barbarians]

17]One day a casket was brought to him which was regarded by those who were in charge of Darius´ baggage and treasure as the most valuable item of all and so Alexander asked his friends what he should keep in it as his own most precious possesion. Many different suggestions were put forward, and finally Alexander said he intended to keep his copy of Iliad there.

(Plut. 7.26, page 281)

Alexander´s love for anything Greek was overwhelming. He considered Iliad as his most precious possession.]

18]According to this story, after Alexander had conquered Egypt, he was anxious to found a great and populous Greek city there, to be called after him.

(Plut. 7.26, page 281)

Alexander as a Greek himself founded Greek cities]

19] Others say that the Priest, who wished as a mark of courtesy to address him with the Greek Phrase ´O, paidion´ (O, My son)…

(Plut. 7.27, page 283-4)

20] On this occasion, Alexander gave a long address to the Thessalians and the rest of the Greeks. They acclaimed by shouting for him to lead them against the barbarians and at this he shifted his lance into his left hand, so Callisthenes tells us, and raising his right be called upon the gods and prayed that he were really the son of Zeus they should protect and encourage the Greeks.

(Plut. 7.33, page 290)

Greek soldiers couldnt have shouted to Alexander to lead them against the Barbarians if him and his Macedonians were Barbarians themselves. Alexander´s pray includes Macedonians to the rest of Greeks.]

21]To the Plataeans in particular he [Alexander] wrote that he would rebuild their city because their ancestors had allowed the Greeks to make their territory the seat of war in the struggle for their common freedom. He also sent a share of the spoils to the people of Croton in Italy in honour of the spirit and valour shown by their athlete Phayllus: this man when the rest of the Greeks in Italy had refused to give any help to their compatriots in the Persian wars, he fitted out a ship at his own expense and sailed with it to Salamis to share in the common danger.

(Plut. 7.34, page 291)

22] During the advance across Persis the Greeks massacred great numbers of their prisoners, and Alexander has himself recorded that he gave orders for the Persians to be slaughtered because he thought that such an example would help his cause.

(Plut. 7.37, page 294)

Macedonians are recorded by Plutarch as Greeks]

23]Alexander stopped and spoke to it [Xerxes Statue] as though it was alive. ´Shall i pass by and leave you lying there because of the expedition you led against Greece, or shall i set you up again because of your magnanimity and your virtues in other respects?´

(Plut. 7.37, page 294)

Xerxes statue was toppled by Macedonians and was left in the ground. This spontaneous action of Macedonians, plus Alexander´s words reveal how much Macedonians wanted to revenge Persia through this Panhellenic expedition.]

24] Demaratus the Corinthian, who was much attached to Alexander, as he had been to his father, began to weep, as old men are aprt to do, and exclaimed that any Greek who had died before that day had missed one of the greatest pleasures in life by not seeing Alexander seated on the throne of Darius.

(Plut. 7.37, page 295)

Greeks wouldnt have missed this great pleasure in life to see Alexander seated on Darius throne if he wasnt Greek himself]

25]She wanted to put a torch to the building herself in full view of Alexander, so that posterity should know that the women who followed Alexander had taken a more terrible revenge for the wrongs of Greece than all the famous commanders of earlier times by land or sea. Her speech was greeted wit wild applause and the king´s companions excitedly urged him on until at last he allowed himself to be persuaded, leaped to his feet and with a garland on his head and a torch in his hand led the way.

(Plut. 7.38, page 295)

26] From this point he advanced into Parthia, and it was here during a pause in the campaign that he first began to wear barbarian dress.

(Plut. 7.45, page 301)

So Macedonian dresses were Hellenic since in Parthia was the FIRST time Alexander began to wear BARBARIAN dresses]

27]However he didnt go so far as to adopt the Median costume, which was altogether barbaric and outlandish.

(Plut. 7.45, page 302)

More evidence of the greekness of Macedonians. The remark about the Median costume being Barbaric wouldnt make sense if Macedonian costume was Barbaric too. Here we have another dinstinction between Barbaric and Macedonian (Greek) costume]

28]For this reason he [Alexander] selected thirty thousand boys and gave orders that they should be taught to speak the Greek language and to use Macedonian weapons and he appointed a large number of instructors to train them.

(Plut. 7.47, page 303)

Alexander spread everywhere the Greek language since he was a Greek himself. There is no reason or even an example of a conqueror in classical ages to spread a "foreign" language but solely his own.]

29]The barbarians were encouraged by the feeling of partnership which their alliance created, and they were completely won over by Alexander´s moderation and courtesy..

(Plut. 7.47, page 304)

Again a clear dinstiction between barbarians and Macedonians]

30]After the company had drunk a good deal somebody began to sing the verse of a man named Pranichus which had been written to humiliate and make fun of some Macedonian commanders who had recently been defeated by the Barbarians.

(Plut. 7.50, page 307)

The dinstiction between Macedonian commanders and Barbarians is more than obvious]

31]Callisthenes then turned to the other side of the picture and delivered a long list of home truths about the Macedonians, pointing out that the rise of Philip´s power had been brought about by the divisions among the rest of the Greeks,

(Plut. 7.53, page 311)

The evidence of the Greekness of Macedonians is striking. Macedonians and the rest of Greeks]

32]In the meantime Demaratus of Corinth, although he was by now an old man, was eager to visit Alexander and when the king had received him Demaratus declared that those Greeks who had died before they could see Alexander seated on the throne of Darius had missed one of the greatest pleasures in teh world.

(Plut. 7.56, page 313)

No reason for those Greeks to "miss one of the greatest pleasures in the world when they when they would see Alexander seated in Darius throne if Alexander was not Greek]

33]For example he put to death Menander, one of the Companions because he had been placed in command of a garrison and had refused to remain there, and he shot down with his own hand one the Barbarians named Orsodates who had rebelled against him .

(Plut. 7.57, page 314)

Clear Dinstiction between the Macedonian Menander and the Barbarian Orsodates.]

34] He [Alexander] also set up altars for the gods of Greece and eve down to the present day the kings of the Praesii whenever they cross the river do honour to these and offer sacrifice on them in the Greek fashion.

(Plut. 7.62, page 320)

Another evidence Alexander and Macedonians worshipped the Greek Pantheon]

35] The ladder was smashed so that no more Macedonians could join him and the barbarians began to gather inside along the bottom of the wall and to shoot at him from below.

(Plut. 7.63, page 320)

Clear Dinstiction between the Macedonians and Barbarians]

36]Both men were wounded and Limnaeus was killed, but Peucestas stood firm wile Alexander killed the Barbarian with his own hand. But he was wounded over and over again and at last received a blow on the neck from a club which forced him to lean against the wall, although he still faced his assialants, At this moment the Macedonians swarmed round him..

(Plut. 7.63, page 321)

Clear Dinstiction between the Macedonians and Barbarians]

37] Nevertheless the prince Taxiles awas able to persuade Clanaus to visit Alexander. His real name was PShines but because he greeted everyone he met not with the Greek salutation chairete but with the Indian word cale, the Greeks called him Calanus.

(Plut. 7.65, page 323)

38] Not long afterwards Alexander discovered tha the tomb of Cyrus had been plundered and had the offender put to death, enen though he was a prominent Macedonian from Pella named Polymachus. When he read the inscription on the tomb he ordered it to be repeated below in Greek characters.

(Plut. 7.69, page 326)

39] The thirty thousand boys whom he had left behind to be given a Greek education and military traning had now grown into active and handsome men and had developed a wonderful skill and agilit in their military exercises.

(Plut. 7.71, page 328)

40] The other, Cassander, had only lately arrived in Babylon and when he saw some of the barbarians prostrate themselves before the king he burst into loud and disrespectful laughter for he had been brought up as a Greek and had never seen such a spectacle in his life.

(Plut. 7.74, page 331)

Plutarch - Moralia, "On the Fortune of Alexander"

"But he said, `If I were not Alexandros, I should be Diogenes´; that is to say: `If it were not my purpose to combine barbarian things with things Hellenic, to traverse and civilize every every continent, to search out the uttermost parts of land and sea, to push the bounds of Macedonia to the farthest Ocean, and to diseminate and shower the blessings of the Hellenic justice and peace over every nation, I should not be content to sit quietly in the luxury of idle power, but I should emulate the frugality of Diogenes. But as things are, forgive me Diogenes, that I imitate Herakles, and emulate Perseus, and follow in the footsteps of Dionysos, the divine author and progenitor of my family, and desire that victorius Hellenes should dance again in India and revive the memory of the Bacchic revels among the savage mountain tribes beyond the Kaukasos…´"

(Plutarchos, On the Fortune of Alexander, 332 a-b)

"Yet through Alexander, Bactria and the Caucasus learned to revere the gods of the Hellenes … Alexander established more than seventy cities among savage tribes, and sowed all Asia with Hellenic magistracies … Egypt would not have its Alexandria, nor Mesopotamia its Seleucia, nor Sogdiana its Prophthasia, nor India its Bucephalia, nor the Caucasus a Hellenic city, for by the founding of cities in these places savagery was extinguished and the worse element, gaining familiarity with the better, changed under its influence.´"

(Plutarchos Moralia. On the Fortune of Alexander, I, 328D, 329A)

"What spectator… would not exclaim… that through Fortune the foreign host was prevailing beyond its deserts, but through Virtue the Hellenes were holding out beyond their ability? And if the ones [i.e., the enemy] gains the upper hand, this will be the work of Fortune or of some jealous deity or of divine retribution; but if the others [i.e. the Hellenes] prevail, it will be Virtue and daring, friendship and fidelity, that will win the guerdon of victory? these were, in fact, the only support that Alexander had with him at this time, since Forune had put a barrier between him and the rest of his forces and equipment, fleets, horse, and camp. Finally, the Macedonians routed the barbarians, and, when they had fallen, pulled down their city on their heads. "

Plutarch, On the Fortune of Alexander, 344 e-f

Again, however, Fortune stirred up Thebes against him, and thrust in his pathway a war with Greeks, and the dread necessity of punishing, by means of slaughter and fire and sword, men that were his kith and kin, a necessity which had a most unpleasant ending.

Plutarch, Virtue, 11]

For Alexander did not follow Aristotles advice to treat the Greeks as if he were their leader, and other peoples as if he were their master; to have regard for the Greeks as for friends and kindred, but to conduct himself toward other peoples as though they were plants or animals; for to do so would have been to cumber his leadership with numerous battles and banishments and festering seditions. But, as he believed that he came as a heaven sent governor to all, and as a mediator for the whole world, those whom he could not persuade to unite with him, he conquered by force of arms, and he brought together into one body all men everywhere, uniting and mixing in one great loving‐cup, as it were, mens lives, their characters, their marriages, their very habits of life.

He bade them all consider as their fatherland the whole inhabited earth, as their stronghold and protection his camp, as akin to them all good men, and as foreigners only the wicked; they should not distinguish between Grecian and foreigner by Grecian cloak and targe, or scimitar and jacket; but the distinguishing mark of the Grecian should be seen in virtue, and that of the foreigner in iniquity; clothing and food, marriage and manner of life they should regard as common to all, being blended into one by ties of blood and children.

Plutarch, Fortune, 6]

A comparison of Alexander with Pericles:

"Pericles collected tribute from the Greeks and with the money adorned the Acropolis with temples; but Alexander captured the riches of barbarians and sent them to Greece with orders that ten thousand talents be used to construct temples for the gods."

On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander, II, 13

Alexander´s assault on the citadel of the Mallians:

"…that through Fortune the foreign host was prevailing beyond its deserts, but through Virtue the Greeks were holding out beyond their ability? And if the enemy gains the upper hand, this will be the work of Fortune or of some jealous deity or of divine retribution; but if the Greeks prevail, it will be Virtue and daring, friendship and fidelity, that will win the guerdon of victory? These were, in fact, the only support that Alexander had with him at this time, since Fortune had put a barrier between him and the rest of his forces and equipment, fleets, horse, and camp.Finally, the Macedonians routed the barbarians, and, when they had fallen, pulled down their city on their heads."

On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander, II, 13

In conquering and civilising the barbarians, both the cities established and the form of government, law and culture is Greek:

"Yet no such busy wars as these employed their time in civilizing wild and barbarous kings, in building Grecian cities among rude and unpolished nations, nor in settling government and peace among people that lived without humanity or control of law."

On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander, I, 4

"But Alexander, building above seventy cities among the barbarous nations, and as it were showing the Grecian customs and constitutions all over Asia, quite weaned them from their former wild and savage manner of living."

On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander, I, 5

"It may, however, be more justly averred of those whom Alexander subdued, had they not been vanquished, they had never been civilized. Egypt had not vaunted her Alexandria, nor Mesopotamia her Seleucia; Sogdiana had not gloried in her Propthasia, nor the Indians boasted their Bucephalia, nor Caucasus its neighboring Grecian city; by the founding of all which barbarism was extinguished and custom changed the worse into better."

On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander, I, 5

"But it behooves us also, as it were, to make a new coin, and to stamp a new face of Grecian civility upon the barbarian metal."

On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander, I, 5

In the treatment and distinguishment of Greeks and barbarians:

"But Alexander made good his words by his deeds; for he did not, as Aristotle advised him, rule the Grecians like a moderate prince and insult over the barbarians like an absolute tyrant; nor did he take particular care of the first as his friends and domestics, and scorn the latter as mere brutes and vegetables…"

On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander, I, 6

"Nor would he that Greeks and barbarians should be distinguished by long garments, targets, scimitars, or turbans; but that the Grecians should be known by their virtue and courage, and the barbarians by their vices and their cowardice…"

On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander, I, 6

"But I would gladly have been a spectator of those majestic and sacred nuptials, when, after he had betrothed together a hundred Persian brides and a hundred Macedonian and Greek bridegrooms, he placed them all at one common table within the compass of one pavilion embroidered with gold, as being all of the same family…"

On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander, I, 7

Next Plutarch tells us of the imposition of Greek religion:

"Most admirable philosophy! which induced the Indians to worship the Grecian Deities…"

On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander, I, 5

"But Alexander engaged both Bactria and Caucasus to worship the Grecian Gods, which they had never known before."

On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander, I, 5

Of Alexander´s descent, which would not be seen as "noble" in Plutarch´s eyes if it was not Greek:

"…the nobility of his Macedonian extraction…"

On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander, I, 9

And the ultimate revenge, to see a Greek king on the throne of Persia:

"Therefore it was that Demaratus the Corinthian, an acquaintance and friend of Philip, when he beheld Alexander in Susa, bursting into tears of more than ordinary joy, bewailed the deceased Greeks, who, as he said, had been bereaved of the greatest blessing on earth, for that they had not seen Alexander sitting upon the throne of Darius."

On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander, I, 7


From the side of his father, Alexander is shown clearly as descendant of Heracles and from his mother side a descendant of Aeacos. (Alex 2.1).

He is educated by Aristotle, uses as his permanent favourite book the Iliad of Homer (see Alex 8,2, 26.2-3) but wishes also other Greek books to be sent to him.

The inscription of Alexander with the first booty is clear and Macedonians are included as Greeks. (see Alex.16.18)

After conquering Egypt Alexander wishes to found "a great Greek city with many people" (Alex. 26.4 and Moralia 328B). The Priest of Ammon adresses Alexander in Greek (Alex. 27.9).

In Alexander´s Live, Macedonians are included in the general Greek race and those who are opposed to Persians and the rest of Barbarian tribes of Asia are called greeks and not Macedonians (Alex. 33.1-4)

Alexander campaigns in Asia in the name of Greeks in order to revenge the campaign of Xerxes against Greece (see Alex. 37.5, 38.4)

Before Gaugamela, Alexander encourages mainly Greeks and from Greeks he is being encouraged too (see Alex. 33.1)

After the final defeat of Darius he chooses 30,000 young Persians and orders those to be educated in Greek (see Alex. 47.6)

In the meantime he wishes to please all the Greeks by abolishing tyrranies, giving autonomy, urging Plateans to rebuild their city, sending booty even to Krotoniates in order to honour the participation of their ancestor Faylos in Medika (Alex. 34.2-3)

Alexander´s behaviour to Greeks is entirelly different from his behaviour to Barbarians. (see Alex 28.1)

Plutarch considered Macedonians as Greeks by distinguishing them always from Barbarians. (see Cleomenes 27.3; 30.1-3; Pyrrhus 16.8; Alexander 9.1;11.3; 11.5; 16.15; 16.18; 20.11;24.13; 28.11; 33.1; 33.4; 35.2; 38.7)

Like we can easily realize from this plethora of hard evidence, Plutarch draws the same conclusion as the other ancient historians and verifies the Greekness of ancient Macedonians. Following Polybius, neither Plutarch is helpful at all to the petty efforts of the Slavs from FYROM who are comically inclined to believe that if they could ever disprove the Greekness of ancient Macedonians, their self-made mythical link to ancient Macedonians will be somehow validated.

Written by Ptolemy MOTW


Presented & produced by Truth Bearer & Makedonia25


Australian Macedonian Advisory Council

Proud indigenous Macedonians proud Greeks one people,one language,one country,one culture..

Τετάρτη, 19 Νοεμβρίου 2008

Descripción de la Grecia antigua

Το θεμα ειναι απο το :GREECE-SALONIKA

Risto Stefov and the falsification of Ancient Macedonia History Part III

Australian Macedonian Advisory Council

November 18, 2008

The common definition of "taking text out of context" is to remove a passage from its surrounding matter in such a way as to distort its true meaning. In other words, a shorter extract or phrase is used purposedly in an attempt to represent the views of the person being quoted inaccurately.

The latter certainly became an effective tool on the hands of the usual peddlers of false history; originating mainly from the "most radical Slavic groups" of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) as Prof. Eugene Borza [1] correctly concluded. Since the overwhelming evidence was against their illusions de grandeur, they had to invent an effective way to present the facts distorted in their favour, and misinterpreting positions became a usual tactic.

If the source in question disagrees with their position, FYROM´s propagandists will try to diminish the validity of the source or instead they will present quotes which allegedly suggest that this source is supportive of their own position. Material that allegedly uphold this position is often taken out of context. Exposition that is at odds with the argument being made in the same text is excluded or otherwise obscured. In summary, we have a plain misrepresentation of the source´s position created by FYROM´s propaganda machine for the purpose of having a deliberate overstatement of the actual position to their own favour.

This common practise can be found on the series of articles signed by Risto Stefov in regards to the ancient Macedonian history. For instance, in one of his latest article ironically titled "Australian Macedonian Advisory Council and the falsification of Ancient Macedonian history Part 8" we are becoming witnesses to the quite amusing attempt of the author to provide deliberate misrepresentations from the writings of the Ancient Greek historian, Polybius. In essence his whole attempt is proved to be unsuccessful and quite comical.

In this article we will present a number of "mis-interpreted" ancient quotes to prove how the Slavs of FYROM exploit the ancient sources to dispute the Greek identity of the Ancient Macedonians.

1. "(Book XVIII. 5) Philip V from Macedon responds to the Greek and Roman demands:"

Firstly, note the intentional distortion of the truth committed by the author through the line " Philip V from Macedon responds to the Greek and Roman demands." Of course Polybius refers in the first case solely to the demands of the Romans' allies and not "the Greek" ones as the author´s wishful thinking. The Roman allies were namely the representative of Attalos, the Rodian, the Achaean and finally the Aitolians. Note also among the Roman Allies the presence of a representative of the…Attalid Macedonian Dynasty.

Philip V of Macedon

2. Furthermore, through the few quotes isolated, the author proves himself quite ignorant of Polybius works by emphasizing alleged differentiations between Macedonians and Southern Greeks. To understand any issue clearly, one must understand all the important factors that enable one to give a precise account of what is at stake. Obviously, the author 'accidentally' missed all the series of "differentiations" which Polybius appear to use a lot namely with Greek people as Mantineians [2], Epirotans [3], Eleans [4], Byzantines [5] , Spartans [6], Achaeans [7], or even Greek individuals as Eumenes [8], Gelon [9], Hieron [10], etc.

3. Another important point we have to deal more is the use of the term "Hellas" in Polybius. Contrarily to Risto Stefov´s allegations, Polybius account shows Macedonia was part of Hellas.

In the treaty of Alliance between the Macedonian King Philip V and Hannibal of Carthage we read:

in the presence of the Genius of Carthage; …and in the presence of all the gods who possess Carthage; and in the presence of ALL THE GODS who possess MACEDONIA AND THE REST OF HELLAS; and in the presence of all the gods of the army who preside over this oath." [11]

OR while describing the greatest mountains in Hellas:

"Polybios also in talking of the size and height of the Alps compares them the greatest mountains in HELLAS: Taugetos, Lykaion, Parnassos, OLYMPOS, Pilion, and Ossa; and Aimos, Rodopi and Dounax in Thrace." [12]

4. Certainly, the usual habit widely used by FYROM´s propaganda machine (which is to omit critical parts of an ancient source) could not possibly be absent from Risto Stefov's articles. An example of this is in this very same passage, which is deliberately taken out of context; even Philip V of Macedon verifies he is Greek [13]:

"Then, turning again to Alexander, "You ask me," he said, "Alexander, why I annexed Lysimachia. 6 It was in order that it should not, owing to your neglect, be depopulated by the Thracians, as has actually happened since I withdrew to serve in this war those of my troops who were acting not as you say as its garrison, but as its guardians. 7 As for the people of Cius, it was not I who made war on them, but when Prusias did so I helped him to exterminate them, and all through your fault. 8 For on many occasions when I AND THE OTHER GREEKS sent embassies to you begging you to remove from your statutes the law empowering you to get booty from booty, you replied that you would rather remove Aetolia from Aetolia than that law.

And although it must be very frustrating for the Slavonic people from FYROM, the facts are that the Ancient Macedonians are indeed referring to themselves as Greek.

5. Throughout this outrageous falsification of history, the author also 'missed' (possibly on purpose), Polybius's views about Ancient Macedonians. It is quite evident that Polybius indeed considered the Ancient Macedonians as Greeks:

"The 38th book contains the completion of the disaster of the HELLENES. For though both the WHOLE of Hellas AND her several PARTS had often met with mischance, yet to none of her former defeats can we more fittingly apply, the name of disaster with all it signifies than to the events of my own time. ...In the time I am speaking of a COMMON misfortune befell the Peloponnesians, the Boiotians, the Fokians, the Euboians, the Lokrians, some of the cities on the Ionian Gulf, and finally the MACEDONIANS. " [14]

6. Moreover, anyone who has read Polybius's account, would witness a constant differentation being made between Macedonians and Barbarians; revealing that another widely used blatant assertion of Risto Stefov, that is: "Macedonians were considered as Barbarians" is completely inaccurate. Macedonians are constantly juxtaposed to Barbarians.

In fact, through Polybius's work we note that Macedonians "never cease from fighting the Barbarians for the sake and security of Greece". Specifically, Polybius says [15]":

"While you have no defence to offer for any of these acts you pride yourselves on having resisted the attack of the barbarians on Delphi, and say that the Greeks ought to be grateful to you for this. But if thanks are due to the Aetolians for this single service, how highly should we honour the Macedonians, who for the greater part of their lives never cease from fighting with the barbarians for the sake of the security of Greece? For who is not aware that Greece would have constantly stood in the greatest danger, had we not been fenced by the Macedonians and the honourable ambition of their kings?"

Or even:

"Antiochus traversed the worst part of the road in the manner I have described, safely but very slowly and with difficulty, only just reaching the pass of Mount Labus on the eighth day. 2 The barbarians were collected there, convinced that they would prevent the enemy from crossing, and a fierce struggle now took place, in which the barbarians were forced back for the following reason. 3 Formed in a dense mass they fought desperately against the phalanx face to face, but while it was still night the light-armed troops had made a wide detour and occupied the heights in their rear, and the barbarians, the moment they noticed this, were panic-stricken and took to flight. 4 The king made every effort to restrain his men from continuing the pursuit, summoning them back by bugle-call, as he wanted his army to descend into Hyrcania unbroken and in good order. "

A thourough analysis of Polybius leads to the conclusion that Risto Stefov has made many erroneous assertions. It is blantantly obvious from the following excerpt from Polybius account where Lyciscus, the Acarnanian envoy is speaking about the Pan-Hellenic campaign of Alexander to enslave the barbarians where "he made Asia subject to Greece" [14]:

"…he (Alexander) inflicted punishment on the Persians for their outrages on all the Greeks, and how he delivered us all from the greatest evils by enslaving the barbarians and depriving them of the resources they used for the destruction of the Greeks, pitting now the Athenians and now the Thebans against the ancestors of these Spartans, how in a word he made Asia subject to Greece."

Lastly, another passage from Polybius [15] where we have undoubted evidence on the Greek ethnicity of Ancient Macedonians, is the following excerpt where we find a clear distinction between the Romans, (who are called clearly a foreign race), and the Macedonians as Greeks, being from "the same Race of the Achaeans and Spartans":

Far from being similar, the circumstances are now the reverse of what they formerly were. 7 Then your rivals in the struggle for supremacy and renown were the Achaeans and MACEDONIANS, PEOPLES OF YOUR OWN RACE, and Philip was their commander. But now Greece is threatened with a war against men of a FOREIGN RACE who intend to enslave her, 8 men whom you fancy you are calling in against Philip, but are calling in really against yourselves and the whole of Greece."

Alexander The Great King of all Hellenes

A shining example of the above is the fact that Macedonians were a part of the Hellenic Alliance or symmachia, a league consisting of Macedonians, Thessalians, Arcananians, Phocians, Epirotes and Beotians under the command of Antigonos as Polybius informs us.[16]

the Achaean magistrates refused the latter request on the ground that they were not empowered to receive additional members without consulting Philip and the rest of the allies. For the alliance was still in force which Antigonus had concluded during the Cleomenic war between the Achaeans, Epirots, Phocians, Macedonians, Boeotians, Acarnanians,º and Thessalians. They, however, agreed to march out to their assistance on condition that the envoys deposited in Sparta their own sons as hostages, to ensure that the Messenians should not come to terms with the Aetolians without the consent of the Achaeans.

"Polybius "The Histories", 4.9.4

Polybius also sheds more light in the religion of ancient Macedonians and he proves without doubt that ancient Macedonians shared the same religion with the rest of Greeks. [11]

"This is a sworn treaty made between us, Hannibal the general, Mago, Myrkan, Barmokar and all other Carthaginian senators present with him, and all Carthaginians serving under him, on the one side, and Xenophanes the Athenian, son of Kleomachos, the envoy whom King Philip, son of Demetrios, sent to us on behalf of himself, and the Macedonians and allies, on the other side.

`In the presence of ZEUS, HERA and APOLLO; in the presence of the Genius of Carthage; …and in the presence of all the gods who possess Carthage; and in the presence of ALL THE GODS who possess Macedonia AND THE REST OF HELLAS; and in the presence of all the gods of the army who preside over this oath. Thus said Hannibal the general and all the Carthaginian senators along with him and the Carthaginian soldiers: ..That King Philip and the Macedonians AND the REST OF THE HELLENES who are their allies shall protect the Carthaginians,… King Philip and the Macedonians AND the OTHER HELLENES who are their allies shall be protected and guarded by the Carthaginians…"

In summary and contrary to Risto Stefov´s incredibly falsified version of ancient History in order to fit his political agenda, we can conclude from Polybius account:

1. Polybius verifies ancient Macedonians are Greek, sharing a common misfortune with the rest of Greeks

2. Polybius verifies ancient Macedonians viewed themselves as Greek which is explicit from the words of Philip V, king of Macedon.

3. Polybius verifies Ancient Greeks viewed Macedonians as being Greeks and particularly being part of the same Race with other Greek people like it is evidentially documented by the account of Lyciscus.

4. Polybius verifies ancient Macedonians are entirely differentiated with Barbarians, shattering the main argument of FYROM´s propaganda while he adds that "Macedonians never cease from fighting the Barbarians for the sake and security of Greece" and their king was the "Benefactor of Greece".

5. Polybius verifies Alexander´s campaign was a Pan-Hellenic campaign where in essence Alexander "made Asia subject to Hellas"

6. Polybius verifies ancient Macedonians shared the same religion as the rest of Greece as is explicitly shown even by treaties of ancient Macedonians themselves.

1] Eugene Borza, "Macedonian Redux"

2] Polybius "The Histories", 2.58.11

3] Polybius "The Histories", 2.7.4

4] Polybius "The Histories", 4.73-74

5] Polybius "The Histories", 4.38.6-10

6] Polybius "The Histories", 6.49.10

7] Polybius "The Histories", 28.6.1-2

8] Polybius "The Histories", 31.6.6

9] Polybius "The Histories", 12.26.1

10] Polybius "The Histories", 7.8.6

11] Polybius "The Histories", 7.9.1-7

12] Polybius "The Histories", 34.10

13] Polybius "The Histories", 18.4.8

14] Polybius "The Histories", 38.1.1-2.8

15] Polybius "The Histories", 9.37.6-8

16] Polybius "The Histories", 4.9.4

Written by Ptolemy MOTW


Presented & produced by Truth Bearer & Makedonia25


Australian Macedonian Advisory Council

Proud indigenous Macedonians proud Greeks one people,one language,one country,one culture..

Source: http://www.americanchronicle.com/articles/82008

Τρίτη, 18 Νοεμβρίου 2008

Statement of Greek Foreign Ministry Spokesman regarding FYROM’s recourse to the International Court of Justice

Foreign Ministry spokesman Mr. George Koumoutsakos made the following statement with regard to FYROM’s instituting proceeding before to the International Court of Justice:

“Mr. Gruevski’s government, after having rejected the recent set of ideas put forward by the Personal Envoy of the Secretary-General for the name issue, Ambassador M. Nimetz, today continued his delaying tactics, by instituting proceedings at the International Court of Justice regarding an alleged violation on the part of Greece of article 11 of the 1995 Interim Accord.

It initiated this action, concealing the fact that the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia itself had earlier flagrantly violated a series of fundamental articles/obligations explicitly foreseen in this Accord, but also the fundamental principle of good neighbourly relations.

In the course of the judicial process, we will have the opportunity to submit documents and memos, analyzing Greece’s positions on the undisguised and continuous violations of the Interim Accord by the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.

With this action, the government of Skopje once again reaffirms that it is not interested in a swift resolution of the dispute on the issue of the country’s definitive name, as explicitly stipulated in UN Security Council Resolution 845 of 1993.

Greece will participate in this process in a self-confident and determined manner representative of the comprehensiveness, clarity and substance of its arguments.
Irrespective of the abovementioned developments, Greece remains committed to the UN negotiating process aimed at reaching a mutually acceptable solution on the name issue. It further firmly stands by its well-known positions.”

source :Hellenic Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Δευτέρα, 17 Νοεμβρίου 2008

Pseudo Macedonia ideology a fallacy

Australian Macedonian Advisory Council

The Former Yugoslav Republic Of Macedonia (FYROM) chief propagandist representing their diaspora community, Mr. Stefov (a.k.a Christos Stefou) continues to persist with his Ancient Macedonian non Hellenic ideology.

Since it's been comprehensibly proved beyond doubt that today's citizens of Former Yugoslav Republic Of Macedonia (FYROM) have no connection whatsoever with Philip II and Alexander III, Stefov is now attempting to discredit the Greek connection with antiquity (Are Modern Greeks direct descendents of the Ancient Greeks?), irrelevant that the Greek language has the longest documented history of any Indo-European language - spanning 34 centuries.

Greek has been written in the Greek alphabet since the 9th century BC in Ancient Greece. Greek literature has a continuous history of nearly 3,000 years. There is no relevance as to what happened with the bloodlines over the centuries; the language survived death, invasions,ethnic cleansing,famines, earthquakes, foreign migration, colonisation, civil wars, plagues etc. So Mr. Stefou (his real Greek name) has to answer the question: how did the language survive whereas in other regions where Greeks became the minority it didn´t?

Secondly, the FYROM(ian) propagandist Mr. Stefou, must also be asked: why does he persist in denying Greeks their Macedonian heritage? Greeks have lived in the region of Macedonia well before the Pontian and Asia Minor migrations of 1922; we the Australian Macedonian Advisory Council (AMAC) are the children of the indigenous people of the area. Why would we allow these Slavonic people to exclusively claim the name 'Macedonia', yet we who also come from the region of Macedonia and some of us who even speak the local Slavic sounding dialect, are denied our human right of self determination? I demand to be called a 'Macedonian'; Mr. Stefou our committee is the Australian Macedonian Advisory Council (AMAC), and we are proud indigenous Macedonians of Greek heritage.

Mr. Stefou, why is it so hard for you to accept this? Is it because we do not agree with your own pseudo ideology? We as indigenous Macedonians accept our Hellenic ancestry; we know who we are where we come from our culture and customs, obviously you and your fellow citizens from Former Yugoslav Republic Of Macedonia (FYROM) are easily confused. A change of personality and identity from one day to the next occurs frequently amongst your population.

Once you were Bulgarians then Vardaskans,then Yugoslavians and now "Macedonians". Which ethnicity will it be next?

Like your other accomplice 'Gandeto' whose real name is 'Grezlovski'; why do you keep switching from one personality to another? Just like you own self (and the citizens of your country), it seems it also applies to your logic and writing one contradiction to another.. When will this end? Again, we continue to prove to you your clear misguided theories, and again we have to explain to the the world your absurd fallacies and mythologies. Educated people can easily see through your propaganda, but unfortunately uneducated people can become confused. Propagandists have no shame,as was shown during WWII, The Cold War, The Young Turks, American Imperialism,Communism, Globalization,The Bush Administration etc..

In your previous article you quote Livy; yet one famous quote from the same historian that clearly states the truth on the matter:

"Aetolians, Acarnanians, Macedonians,men of the same language"(T. Livius XXXI,29, 15)

That says it all about Livy as he clearly defines the Macedonians as the same Greeks.

"General Paulus of Rome surrounded by the ten Commissioners took his official seat surrounded by the whole crowds of MacedoniansPaulus announced in Latin the decisions of the Senate, as well as his own, made by the advice of his council. This announcement was translated into Greek and repeated by Gnaeus Octavius the Praetor-for he too was present."(T. Livius,XLV)

Again why would they translate in Greek and not in "Macedonian" if they weren't Greek?

Then we have your new claims about David G. Hogarth(Greek Australian Advisory Council and the falsification of Ancient Macedonian history Part 7)

Lets see what this historian writes and compare your theories and misquotes..

"The ancient East"

By D.G Hogarth

Page 80


It Macedonia was inhabited by sturdy gentry and peasantry and by agile highlanders, all composed of the same racial elements as the Greeks,with perhaps a preponderant infusion of northern blood which had come south long ago with emigrants from the Danubian lands

The social development of the Macedonians - to give various peoples one generic name - had, for certain reasons, not been nearly so rapid as that of their southern cousins. They had never come in contact with the higher Aegean civilization, nor had they mixed their blood with that of cultivated predecessors

Page 81


A year after Chaeronea Philip was named by the congress of Corinth Captain-General of all Greeks to wreak the secular vengeance of Hellas on Persia


While Philip was in Thebes as a young man, old Agesilaus, who first of Greeks had conceived the idea of invading the inland East, was still seeking a way to realize his oft-frustrated project.


The idea had certainly been long in the air that any military power which might dominate Hellas would be bound primarily by self-interest and secondarily by racial duty to turn its arms against Asia

page 88


Looked as a whole, and not only from a Seleucid point of view, the ancient East, during the century following Seleucus´death (forty-three years after Alexander´s) was dominated politically by Hellenes over fuly nine-tenths of its area.


As for Seleucus and his successors, thought the latter, from Antiochus Soter onward, had a strain of Iranian blood, they held and proved themselves essentially Hellenic.


Ptolemy Lagus and all the Lagidae remained Macedonian Greeks to a man and a woman and to the bitter end, with the greatest Hellenic city in the world for their seat


As for the remaining tenth part of the East, almost the whole of it was ruled by princes who claimed the title "Philhellene" and justified it not only by political friendlisness to the Seleucidae and the Western Greeks, bt also by encouraging Greek settlers and Greek manners.


Tradition held the other element to be Hellenic, and no one in the fourth century seriously questioned its belief. "Philip and Alexander of Macedon"

by David G. Hogarth, page 5


The king [of macedon] was chief in the first instance of a race of plain-dwellers, who held themselves to be, like him, of Hellenic stock "Philip and Alexander of Macedon"

by David G. Hogarth, page 8


From Alexander I, who rode to the Athenian pickets the night before Plataea and proclaimed himself to the generals their friend and a Greek, down to Amyntas, father of Philip, who joined forces with Lacedaemon in 382, the kings of Macedon bid for greek support by being more Hellenic than the Hellenes.

"Philip and Alexander of Macedon" by David G. Hogarth, page 9-10


Archelaus patronized Athenian poets and Athenian drama and commisioned Euripides to dramatize the deeds of his Argive ancestor.

"Philip and Alexander of Macedon" by David G. Hogarth, page 10


"Macedonia" therefore, throughout historical times until the accession of Philip the Second, presents the spectacle of a nation that was no nation, but a group of discordant units, without community of race, religion, speech or sentiment, resultant from half-accomplished conquest and weak as the several sticks of the faggot in the fable.

Philip and Alexander of Macedon" by David G. Hogarth, page 10

D.G.Hogarth quotes

As you can see Mr. Stefou we have shown the facts, and produced the evidence clearly and comprehensively by both Livy and Hogarth; and both these two historians state the Hellenic culture and Macedonia's place in the Ancient Greek world. The propaganda Mr. Stefou must end now, if you are to join the rest of us in the educated sphere; because in the end you only serve to discredit yourself in the eyes of the educated.


It seems that the other propagandist the "alleged"historian the pseudo Italian (FYROMian by birth Grezlovski)J.S.Gandeto has just accused us of falsification of historical quotes

A Greek case of blatant hypocrisy

Yet here we have the original in Latin which clearly defines the language as homogenous meaning Greek.I ask again to this "alleged" historian that seems to have a post graduate diploma from Disneyland can he not see the obvious?Can this person discredit himself like this?Can Mr.Gandeto read clearly or does his hatred of Greeks and Greece hold no bounds?

Aetolos Acarnanas Macedonas, eiusdem linguae homines, leues ad tempus ortae causae diiungunt coniunguntque: cum alienigenis, cum barbaris aeternum omnibus Graecis bellum est eritque; natura enim, quae perpetua est, non mutabilibus in diem causis hostes sunt. sed unde coepit oratio mea, ibi desinet.

Now we'll translate it for you word for word Mr.Grezlovski...

Trifling causes occasionally unite and disunite the Aetolians, Acarnanians, and Macedonians, men speaking the same language. With foreigners, with barbarians, all Greeks have, and ever will have, eternal war: because they are enemies by nature, which is always the same, and not from causes which change with the times.

Now is that clear for you sir?

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Serbs in FYROM: Historical Presence and the Current Status

Serbs in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia(FYROM) are an extension from the central parts of Serbian ethnicity, related to archaic groups in Kosovo and Metohija as well to a larger degree, with the basin of river Morava. That Serbs are found among early medieval Slav settlers of the Vardar/Axios region is confirmed by sources which identify the city of Gordoservon in Asia Minor as founded by introduction of Serb captives from the aforementioned area. The exact nature and scope of this early Serbian settlement in FYROM is not known, but it can be safely assumed that it was minuscule and any demographic and ethnolinguistic influence was probably lost in the Byzanto-Bulgarian struggles of the next few centuries.

Serbians established their massive presence in Povardarje (today's FYROM) and parts of Macedonia (Northern Greece) after King Milutin's conquest of Polog, Skoplje and Ovče Polje area in northernmost Povardarje in 1282. The catastrophic defeat of Bulgarians at the Battle of Velbužd (Ćustendil) in 1330 inflicted by the Serbian army removed the final challenge to Serbian authority in Povardarje.

Conclusive with the act of coronation of Stephan Dušan in his capital Skoplje, Serbian population was implanted in both Pologs, in enclaves around Debar, in the wider regions of Skoplje and Ovče Polje and in small extent in Greek cities of Kastoria and Serres, which together with the southern area of FYROM compromised the part of Dušan's Empire whose Greek character was observed as the cultural policy of the Nemanjić court.

The period of the Serbian rule in Povardarje was characterized by strong cultural initiative in the domain of ecclesiastic art, primarily architecture. Several hundreds of Christian temples build or substantially reconstructed in the relatively brief Serbian period of Povardarje testify to the intensity and maturity of Serbian culture of the era. "Dušan's Law", a legal codex and a de facto constitution of the late medieval Serbian state proclaimed in Skoplje as well as the great number of manuscripts and epigraphic monuments produced in that era do not mention "Macedonians", in contrast with other ethnic groups such as Greeks, Albanians, Vlachs, Bulgarians and Saxons.

The abrupt end of Serbian domination of Povardarje came with the invasion of Ottoman Turks, a militant Asiatic tribe which confronted the Serb defenders at Marica (Černomen) in 1371 in a battle described by the contemporaries as clash of Serbs and Greeks against the Turks.

Devoid of freedom and without centralist institutions, with the exception of the inclusion of northern FYROM under jurisdiction of the Patriarchate of Peć in 17th and 18th century, Serbs as well as other local Christians were forced to the status of "dhimi", marginalized and enslaved population that theoretically enjoyed scriptural protection granted by Muslim overlords.

It would appear that there are the central trend in the history of FYROM was its De-Serbization in cultural and demographic sense and the reemergence of the Bulgarian rural population. While this process was not either linear nor it is complete, in the light of total absence of works about the history, language and culture by science of FYROM organized along lines of Pseudomacedonian supremacy, few aspects of Serbian presence in early and middle Ottoman period deserve mention.

Western and local Catholic sources generally acknowledge that Skoplje (today's Skopje, the capital of FYROM) as well as Kratovo, a town located east from Skoplje, have a Serbian character. This was reported by Jakov Sorranzo in 1575, Martin Crusius and Aleksandar Komulović in 1584, Nicolo Longi in 1622, Bishop Peter of Sophia in 1665, Urban Cerri in 1680. Bishop Peter Bogdani in 1685, Bishop of Cotor Marin Drago in 1690 are more specific, mentioning Skoplje's Serbian and Greek population. These ethnic groups are mentioned also by Bishop Matija Masarek in 1770 and 1790.

Orthodox clerics Bratan Ivanov, Dimitrije Petrov and Mihailo of Kratovo were registered in historical sources as Serbs upon their arrival in Russia, during the middle phase of Ottoman rule.

Furthemore, one of the most common male names among the Slavs of Povardarje registered by Turkish demographic records is "Srbin" (a Serb) which was popular even at the beginning of the 20th century. Undoubtedly, it was given as a way to express nostalgia for the Nemanjići period, the last Slavic epoch of freedom.

The beginning of the last phase of De-Serbization of Povardarje started with the partial forced assimilation out of the circumstances created by the Serbian uprisings in 1804 and 1815 on the territory of today's Serbia, when a number of Serbs took the Bulgarian ethnic name out of conformism. This phenomena was accelerated with the dying of Serbian schools in northern FYROM by the middle of the 19th century and their replacement by the school system of the Bulgarian Exarchate founded in 1871.

The emancipation of the surrounding Bulgarian population, primarily as a reaction against perceived eminent status of the Greek clergy and the emerging class of Greek bourgeoisie in southern towns of FYROM further created preconditions for assimilation of the Serb population already weakened and marginalized from participation in the wider emergence of nationalist sentiments. It is only after beginning of propagandist activity sponsored by official Belgrade in the late 19th century and the appearance of Serbian paramilitary, the Četniks, after 1904 that the described process of ethnic melting was halted and partially reversed.

It should be emphasized that the competition of nationalities in the Povardarje region in the closing years of 19th and the first years of 20th century caused more often than not a confusion with regard of self-determination of local individuals.

Finally, the ideology of "Macedonism"appeared as an embrionic form and precursor to creation of the nominally "Macedonian" nation in Tito's Yugoslavia after 1944, although in the preceding decades it was nothing more than intellectual concept nurtured among few people, in opposition of the all-pervasive Bulgarian national feeling south of Skoplje and north and eastern of Pelagonia registered by great number of foreign visitors and recognized by scholars as such. The Serb presence in FYROM in the closing decades of Turkish rule in Europe was nevertheless registered by travelers such as J. Muller, C. Robert, E. Spencer, I. S. Jastrebov, K. Ostreich and others.

Among ethnographic customs the archaic and exclusively Serbian custom of "Krsna Slava", festivity in honor of a Patron Saint, observed even today in spite of decades of Communist oppression of spirituality in general and the Christians in particular, serves as a certain marker of Serbian ancestry of a great number of "Macedonians" of South Slavic type, chiefly in northern and western Povardarje regions.

The legacy of decades of Marxist-Titoist concept of social organization in the Ex-Yugoslav republic and the post-1992 process of symbolic De-Slavization of the "Macedonian" identity in FYROM proved as an obstacle to consolidation of the Serbian identity at local level. The name "Macedonia" for a region belonging to the ancient regions of Paeonia and Dardania substituted the geographic name (southern) Serbia from the north of the country. Scholarship about the Serbian language, folklore and ethnology became non-existent due to the acquired reorientation of the public discourse towards building a fictional "Macedonian" identity rooted in classical antiquity. The presence of ethnic Serbs in FYROM, which numbers over 180. 000 people, mostly undeclared as such due to social pressure, was acknowledged by the constitution of the young Balkan nation only in 2002.

Pressure towards Serbs in FYROM continues as an unofficial policy and as folkoristic phenomena according to which they are mixture of "colonists" from Serbia and other areas of former Yugoslavia on one hand and "srbomani", I. e. "Macedonians" or Bulgarians – depending on the perspective – which converted into Serbianism and are, by implication, traitors from the "Macedonian" collective guided by opportunism. Such stigmatization is part of a broader policy of homogenization of the entities characterized by Orthodox Christian affinity, including Greeks, Greek-Vlachs and conscious Bulgarians, under the banner of Pseudomacedonian ideology.

It remains to be seen are Serbs in FYROM going to prevail the local atmosphere of quiet dehumanization and "Macedonisation" in light of the phlegmatic attitude of Serbia with regard to cultural sponsorship of Serbian communities abroad. Modest successes regarding ethnic preservation and creation of ethnic metaphysical values after the change of the FYROMian constitution are encouraging signs, but complete revitalization of the local Serbian national culture can be achieved only in opposition to "Macedonizing" trends and creation of political appeal against national defeatism and fatalism.

Vasko Gligorijević

Skoplje, FYROM