Γράφει ο Νίκος Τάγιος (εκ μέρους της ομάδας εργασίας)
Το συνημμένο κείμενο με αφορμή το θέμα που έχει προκύψει γύρω από το λεγόμενο Μακεδονικό, προσπαθεί να φωτίσει γεγονότα που έχουν συμβεί και καταγραφεί από την ιστορία πριν από 2.500 χρόνια.
Σημείωση: Το εν λόγω κείμενο, στα ελληνικά ή στα αγγλικά, αποστέλλεται:
***Στον πρόεδρο της Ελληνικής Δημοκρατία
***Στον πρωθυπουργό και τα μέλη της Ελληνικής Κυβέρνησης ***Στον πρόεδρο της Βουλής των Ελλήνων ***Στα κόμματα της Βουλής ***Στους Έλληνες βουλευτές
***Στις ηγεσίες και τα υπουργεία Εξωτερικών των χωρών της Ε.Ε. και του Ν.Α.Τ.Ο.
***Στους ευρωβουλευτές της Ε.Ε. ***Στους Γερουσιαστές των Η.Π.Α.
***Στις πρεσβείες όλων των χωρών στην Ελλάδα ***Στις πρεσβείες της Ελλάδος στο εξωτερικό ***Σε οργανώσεις και συνδέσμους του απόδημου ελληνισμού
***Σε μεγάλα πανεπιστήμια του εξωτερικού ***Σε πανεπιστήμια του εξωτερικού με έδρες ελληνικών σπουδών
***Σε ΜΜΕ, έντυπα και ηλεκτρονικά, στην Ελλάδα και το εξωτερικό
THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA
This text was drawn up by Greeks who attempt to expose known historical facts without nationalistic blinders.
The “Macedonian nation” was invented for obvious geopolitical aims in the first decades of the twentieth century. However, King Alexandros and the Macedonians lived thousands years before that…
ALEXANDER THE GREAT ( 356-323 B.C. )
Alexandros was given birth in Pella in 356 b.C. His father was Philippos the Second, King of Macedonia and his mother was Olympias who came from the royal family of Ipeiros.
He received good education. Among his teachers, the most distinguished Leonidas who familiarized Alexandros with the military education of the Spartans and the famous philosopher Aristotle who initiated him into philosophy.
In 336 B.C., Alexandros, hardly twenty years old, takes over the throne of Philippos. His main concern was the continuation of the work of his father, such as the organisation of a Pan-Hellenic expedition against the Persians.
Thus, after he succeeded in assuring the attendance of all Greeks, except from the Spartans, in the congress of Korinthos, in 334 B.C., he begins from Pella with 30.000 pedestrians, 5.000 horsemen and 150 ships, for an undertaking that will last for 11 years and which will change the physiognomy of the world map. His work is realised in three phases.
A) 334-331: Sovereignty in Asia Minor, after the battle in Granikos river and the decisive victory of the Greeks in Issos, where the multiple numerically army of the Persians suffers terrible defeat. Of course Dareios forces to escape, when he himself is attacked by Alexandros and his cavalry!
Next move of Alexandros was to have control over the Asiatic beach in the Aegean Sea for the unhindered supply of his army. He conquers Foiniki, Palestine, Egypt. In the Delta of river Nile in 331 B.C., he creates a city that was to be evolved in one of the biggest commercial and intellectual centres of the Mediterranean, Alexandria.
B) 331-327: The strategic objective of Alexandros is the absolute destruction of the most powerful martial machine of the Persians. The two armies with all their forces face each other at the plain of Gaugamela. The conflict, one of the biggest and most decisive battles of all antiquity, is violent. The Greeks overcome, Dareios in order to avoid being arrested escapes once again, and the Persian army is dissolved.
Afterwards, Alexandros advances in the occupation of all the Eastern territories of Persia and in the catalysis of the huge Persian Empire (current Afghanistan, Pakistan). In its fringes Alexandros builds Alexandria Eschati (Utmost) and remains there for almost two years.
C) 327-325: Expedition in the Indian peninsula. Alexandros desired to reach up to the ends of the world that, as it was believed back then, was India. In Hydaspis, tributary of Indus River, he faced and beat the local sovereign and advanced at the east until Hyfasis River. His wish to approach Ganges was not fulfilled, due to the reaction of his soldiers, who were very tired. (Chart of possessions of Alexandros, picture 1)
Two years later, in 323 B.C., Alexandros dies suddenly, being hardly 33 years old and while planning the circumnavigation of Arabia.
Alexandros was of one the most talented army leaders in world history. His expedition was a great accomplishment, especially at this time, and its success was his own personal achievement. Moreover, researchers agree that never a person accomplished so much in such a short time.
As a great politician, he also wished for the reconciliation of the conquerors and the ones conquered, accepting local habits and manners, as well as using different ways of commanding in each region, ensuring thus the unity of his empire.
At the same time, in the cultural sector, the spreading of the Greek culture and of the Greek language as well as the adoption of cultural elements of Eastern populaces, along with his evident intention to get to know in depth all the conquered regions, gave his expedition the character of an armed exploration.
In his expeditions he was accompanied by scientists, such as astronomers, geographers, botanists, artists and others, who recorded their scientific observations from the regions that were occupied.
His campaign left indelible traces in the next centuries and his personality and action affected popular imagination and created the legend of a fabulous hero in the tradition of many populaces…
WERE THE MACEDONIANS GREEK?
What is a nation? What defines it?
Irodotos, the father of History, about five centuries before the birth of Christ, had said: “A Nation is the entity of persons that have common origin, common language, common religion as well as common manners and customs”. (Irodotos’ History, book 8, paragraph 144).
Which of those characteristics can the “Macedonians” of FYROM appeal to, when they claim that they are the descendants of Alexandros?
As for the common blood and the origin indicatively mentioned:
A) Isocrates, a major Athenian orator, born in 436 B.C., says: “It is acceptable by all that Macedonia is an ancient country which is purely Greek and famous between all people”.
B) After his victory in the battle of Granikos river, Alexandros sent 300 shields as a gift (common manners and customs) in the temple of goddess Athena (common religion) with a sign written in Greek (common language): “Alexandros the son of Philippos and the Greek (common blood), except from the Spartans, send these for their victory against the barbarians in Asia”.
As for the Macedonian language, the statement that the Macedonians spoke another language and not the Greek one is at least ridiculous. All the signs and all the written texts that have been found in excavations in Macedonia and not only there, are written exclusively in the Greek language.
Indicatively follows the description of three Macedonian currencies:
A) 336-323 B.C. Tetradrachmo (four drachmas) of Alexandros from the mint of Amfipolis. This currency depicts Hercules and on its other side the word “ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ” (ALEXANDROY=of Alexander) is written in Greek. (Currency, picture 2).
B) 326-323 B.C. Drachma of Alexandros, emanating from the mint of Amfipolis. On its one side it represents Hercules’ head. On its other side an eagle is depicted and the word “ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ” (ALEXANDROY=of Alexander) is again written in Greek. (Currency, picture 3).
C) 325-320 B.C. Head of goddess Athena wearing a Corinthian helmet. On its other side the phrase “ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ” (“ALEXANDROY VASILEOS”=of King Alexander) is once again written in Greek. (Currency, picture 4).
At this point emerge legitimate questions. Is it possible for the Macedonians to speak another language, and use Greek in their currencies? And furthermore, can the residents of FYROM, who don’t speak Greek, read and comprehend the sign “ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ” “ALEXANDROY VASILEOS”?
In addition, the names of the Macedonians are purely Greek. For example, the name Philippos is composed by the word φίλος (filos) =friend and ίππος (ippos) =horse and stands for the man who loves horses.
Of particular interest is also the etymology of the name Alexandros that emanates from the verb αλέξω (alexo) = protect and the noun άνδρας (andras) = man and stands for someone who is brave.
Same religion - Same manners, customs and deliveries
It is also historically proven that the Macedonians and the rest of the Greeks had common religion, as they all believed in the twelve gods of Olympus.
Similarly, they frequented common religious places, such as the Oracle of Delphi, where Alexandros asked for an oracle, before beginning his eminent expedition.
The Greeks however also had common participation in athletic games such as the Pythia, the Isthmia, the Nemea and the Olympia. More specifically, we know that in the Olympic Games the king of Macedonia Alexander the First took part, while the committee excluded other eminent athletes from the games and granted this privilege only to those who were pure Greeks!
Hence, the Spartans, the Macedonians, the Athenians, the Corinthians, the Ileians, the Thessalians and the rest of the Greeks have all the traits that define a common nation.
It is also known that ancient Greece was divided into pieces, a lot of small states with political, economic, military and administrative independence. However, all Greeks were fully aware of their common origin and when it was necessary they stuck together in order to fight for their common ideals.
The final conclusion is that some populaces and nationalities, lacking important historical past, try to connect their racial and national origin with persons that have a great place in the pedestal of history, such as Alexandros (Alexander the Great).
This is the reason that made our FYROM neighbours, as in the last decades they live in a country that had been conquered by Philippos, the father of Alexandros, and was department of Macedonia, baptize themselves Macedonians wishing to usurp the “Macedonian language” and the “Macedonian nation”.
And it does not stop here. Through their constitution and their school handbooks they cultivate irredentism and envision a big Macedonia by the violent annexation of Greek territories. (Prime Minister Nikola Gruevski places wreath at a monument where exists a map of “Macedonia” in red colour, and which includes all the territory Greek Macedonia, picture 5).
We believe that each nation owes to claim its right for the defence of its historical identity. We cannot exclude the Greeks from this basic principle, as their contribution in the shaping of modern political thought and in the foundation of democracy was decisive.
However, despite all these, today, some self-appointed “historians” wish to change history after 2.500 years, when it is datum that the residents of the neighbouring country (FYROM), in no case have common origin, same language, same religion, same manners and customs as the Macedonians or any historical relation with Macedonia, which is only Greek. -
Ακολουθεί το κείμενο στα Ελληνικά.