Σάββατο, 19 Δεκεμβρίου 2009

Macedonian identity is part of the identity of every single Greek citizen and we will not negotiate on that

Source :Morden Macedonian History

.......Greek Deputy Foreign Minister Dimitris Droutsas said in an interview at "Proto Thema" newspaper.

Also Mr Droutsas points out that official Athens insists on negotiations only on the name and thinks that it is a mistake to add issues connected only to the language and identity in the negotiations as the Macedonian identity belongs to every single Greek citizen.

Greece will require amendments to the Constitution of formeR Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia(FYROM) so as to realize the formula for a common name for international use. This is the position expressed by Droutsas, who as if covered the Greek red line with concrete.

UN mediator Matthew Nimetz shouldn’t have added the rest of the issues in this proposal in 2005 but the worse thing was that the previous Greek government of PM Kostas Karamanlis agreed to discuss them, Droutsas remarked.

Whole interview in this link.

Παρασκευή, 18 Δεκεμβρίου 2009

1801 – the name ‘Macedonians’ of course identified Greeks

source :History-of-macedonia.com

From the Monthly Magazine or British Register of 1801


It is evident that in the early 1800’s in the AustroHungarian Empire the name Macedonian was applied of course for Greeks.

Τρίτη, 15 Δεκεμβρίου 2009

Οι «ωρολογιακές βόμβες» των Βαλκανίων

του Γιώργου Δελαστίκ

Ένα καινούριο σύνθημα για τα Βαλκάνια κυκλοφορεί εσχάτως στην ΕΕ: ένταξη των υπόλοιπων χωρών στην ευρωπαϊκή ολοκλήρωση έως την 1η Αυγούστου 2014. Από διαφημιστικής πλευράς, είναι ένα εύστοχο μήνυμα, καθώς τότε συμπληρώνονται ακριβώς εκατό χρόνια από το ξέσπασμα του Πρώτου Παγκοσμίου Πολέμου, με τη δολοφονία του αρχιδούκα της Αυστρίας Φερδινάνδου στο Σαράγιεβο της Βοσνίας.

Από πολιτική σκοπιά όμως, αυτό το σλόγκαν δεν έχει καμιά σχέση με την πραγματικότητα. Με την υποκριτική αισιοδοξία του συγκαλύπτει τις πολλαπλές, επικίνδυνες κρίσεις που υποβόσκουν στις περισσότερες από τις υποψήφιες προς ένταξη χώρες και τις καθιστούν αντικειμενικά ακατάλληλες να αποτελέσουν μέλη της ΕΕ πριν λυθούν τα προβλήματα που συνδέονται με αυτές.

Με εξαίρεση την Κροατία, η οποία ούτως ή άλλως θα ενταχθεί στους «27» το πολύ σε μία διετία, και το μικροσκοπικό Μαυροβούνιο, το οποίο δεν θα αντιμετωπίσει προβλήματα, όλες οι υπόλοιπες περιπτώσεις βαλκανικών χωρών είναι πολύ προβληματικές.

Τρία κράτη που… δεν θα υπάρχουν!

Το κορυφαίο ζήτημα είναι ότι πρώτα απ’ όλα στα Βαλκάνια υπάρχουν αυτή τη στιγμή τρία κράτη εμφανώς μεταβατικού χαρακτήρα, τα οποία είναι εξαιρετικά απίθανο να συνεχίσουν μακροπρόθεσμα να υφίστανται ως αυτοτελείς κρατικές οντότητες. Πρόκειται για τη Βοσνία, την ΠΓΔΜ και το Κόσοβο.

Και στις τρεις περιπτώσεις, η ΕΕ και οι ΗΠΑ χρησιμοποίησαν ασφυκτικές πολιτικές πιέσεις για να υποχρεώσουν σε αναγκαστική συμβίωση λαούς που αρνούνται να συμβιώσουν. Στις περιπτώσεις, μάλιστα, της Βοσνίας και του Κοσόβου χρησιμοποιήθηκε η στρατιωτική βία των ΗΠΑ και του ΝΑΤΟ για να επιβληθεί επί των Σέρβων ο σχηματισμός των δύο κρατών.

«Η κατάσταση στην περιοχή φαίνεται εξωτερικά ήρεμη, κάτω όμως από την επιφάνεια υπάρχει αναταραχή», σημειώνει σε μια πολύ ενδιαφέρουσα ολοσέλιδη ανάλυσή του ο απεσταλμένος στα Βαλκάνια της εβδομαδιαίας γερμανικής σοσιαλδημοκρατικής εφημερίδας Die Zeit. «Σε προέδρους και πρωθυπουργούς, σε πολιτικούς και φοιτητές, σε πολίτες και στρατιωτικούς των διεθνών δυνάμεων, σε όλους, παρατηρούσε κανείς την ανησυχία ότι η πρώην Γιουγκοσλαβία δεν έχει ακόμη βρει την τελική μορφή της», τόνιζε.

«Ο πόλεμος δεν τελείωσε ακόμη, απλώς δεν πέφτουν πια πυροβολισμοί», του είπε χαρακτηριστικά ο Ντάβορ Βούλετιτς, σύμβουλος επί θεμάτων εξωτερικής πολιτικής του προέδρου των Μουσουλμάνων της Βοσνίας Χάρις Σίλαντζιτς.

«Πρόκειται για ατελή κράτη», κατέληγε στο συμπέρασμα ο Γερμανός δημοσιογράφος, υπογραμμίζοντας ότι «τα Βαλκάνια προσφέρουν σήμερα ελάχιστες αφορμές για αισιοδοξία, καθώς το καθένα από αυτά τα ατελή κράτη είναι μια ωρολογιακή βόμβα»!

Μίσος Σλάβων – Αλβανών στην ΠΓΔΜ

Η δικαιολογημένη εστίαση της προσοχής των Ελλήνων στην επίλυση του προβλήματος της ονομασίας της ΠΓΔΜ έχει οδηγήσει σε μια αδικαιολόγητη παραμέληση παρακολούθησης του θεμελιώδους προβλήματος αυτής της χώρας – της απροθυμίας της μεγάλης αλβανικής μειονότητας, που υπερβαίνει το ένα τέταρτο του πληθυσμού της χώρας, να συνεχίσει να ζει υπό την πολιτική, οικονομική και κοινωνική κυριαρχία της σλαβικής πλειοψηφίας. Η οξύτητα της αντιπαράθεσης Σλάβων – Αλβανών είναι πολύ σοβαρότερη από όσο φανταζόμαστε.

«Οι Αλβανοί ουδέποτε αναγνώρισαν πλήρη νομιμότητα στο μακεδονικό κράτος», γράφει η γαλλική Monde diplomatique και συνεχίζει την πολύ ενδιαφέρουσα ανάλυσή της: «Οι Αλβανοί [της ΠΓΔΜ] δεν βρίσκουν καμιά έλξη σε ένα μικρό απομονωμένο κράτος, το οποίο αρέσκεται να εξυμνεί το μεγαλείο των κατά φαντασίαν αρχαίων προγόνων του. Προδιατεθειμένοι καθώς είναι να αμφισβητούν τη νομιμότητα αυτού του κράτους, θα μπορούσαν και αυτοί επίσης να υποχωρήσουν εκ νέου στις σειρήνες του εθνικισμού, πόσω μάλλον που η ανακήρυξη της ανεξαρτησίας του Κοσόβου ξαναρχίζει τη συζήτηση για μια τελική αλβανική εθνική ενοποίηση», υπογραμμίζει η σοβαρή γαλλική εφημερίδα.

Έχει απόλυτο δίκιο. Οι Αλβανοί της ΠΓΔΜ δεν έχουν άλλο εθνικό στόχο από την τελική απόσπαση των εδαφών τους και την ένωσή τους με την Αλβανία και το Κόσοβο, στο πλαίσιο μιας ενιαίας εθνικής εστίας, ενός ενιαίου κράτους για ολόκληρο το αλβανικό έθνος.

Η ομολογία των πρωταγωνιστών

Την αδυναμία μακροπρόθεσμης συμβίωσης Σλάβων και Αλβανών κατοίκων της ΠΓΔΜ δεν τη διαπιστώνουν όμως μόνο οι ξένοι οξυδερκείς αναλυτές. Την ομολογούν ευθέως και οι ίδιοι οι πρωταγωνιστές.

«Η πολιτική τύφλωση αυτών που μας κυβερνούν και η ανικανότητά τους να αντλήσουν μαθήματα από το παρελθόν διευρύνουν καθημερινά το χάσμα που χωρίζει τις δύο κύριες κοινότητες της χώρας», υποστηρίζει ευθέως το σλαβικό εβδομαδιαίο περιοδικό Globus των Σκοπίων, το οποίο πρόσκειται στη σοσιαλδημοκρατική αντιπολίτευση.

Καταγγέλλει το κόμμα του πρωθυπουργού Γκρούεφσκι ότι «είναι αποτελματωμένο στην εξύμνηση του έθνους του και στην εφεύρεση ενός αρχαίου παρελθόντος», και καταλήγει στο σοβαρότατο συμπέρασμα: «Αυτή η πολιτική, η οποία είναι αντίθετη προς την αρχή της ανεκτικότητας και της ειρηνικής συμβίωσης, οδηγεί ευθέως σε μια ομοσπονδιοποίηση της χώρας και μάλιστα στη διάσπασή της»!

Με ακόμη πιο έντονο τρόπο εκφράζουν ανάλογα αισθήματα οι Αλβανοί της ΠΓΔΜ, όπως φαίνεται και σε ένα βαρυσήμαντο άρθρο της εφημερίδας Express του Κοσόβου.

«Υπέκυψε δυστυχώς στη δοκιμασία της πραγματικότητας η εμπειρία ενός ενιαίου μακεδονικού κράτους, το οποίο υποστήριξε με ενθουσιασμό η διεθνής κοινότητα», τονίζει η αλβανική εφημερίδα χωρίς περιστροφές και συνεχίζει: «Οι Αλβανοί περιχαρακώνονται όλο και περισσότερο στη ζώνη τους, στα δυτικά της Μακεδονίας. Όσο πιο πολύ αυτοδιαχειρίζονται τα εδάφη τους, τόσο πιο πολύ γίνονται μια εθνικά ομοιογενής οντότητα και τόσο περισσότερο απομακρύνονται οι Μακεδόνες προς τα ανατολικά της χώρας. Αυτές οι δύο κοινότητες δεν έχουν πλέον τα ίδια συμφέροντα… Θα καταλήξουμε με μία Δημοκρατία της Μακεδονίας θεωρητικά, αλλά στην πράξη με δύο διαφορετικές χώρες».

Δεν παραλείπει και η Express να στιγματίσει «το κόμπλεξ που ωθεί τους Μακεδόνες που βρίσκονται σε αναζήτηση εθνικής ταυτότητας να γίνονται εχθροί με την Ελλάδα, με τη Βουλγαρία και τελευταία με την Αλβανία».

Τι νόημα έχει, λοιπόν, η ένταξη στην ΕΕ μιας τέτοιας χώρας, όταν ακόμη και οι ίδιοι της οι κάτοικοι, Σλάβοι και Αλβανοί, βλέπουν χωριστό το μέλλον τους; Είναι προφανές ότι πρώτα πρέπει να κριθεί το ζήτημα της κρατικής υπόστασης της μεταβατικής ΠΓΔΜ, να δοθεί λύση στο θέμα της αλβανικής εθνικής ολοκλήρωσης που συμπεριλαμβάνει το μέλλον τόσο του Κοσόβου όσο και της ΠΓΔΜ, φυσικά και της Αλβανίας, και έπειτα να ενταχθούν αυτές οι τρεις χώρες στην ΕΕ σε συνάρτηση και με τη Σερβία, στην οποία οι Βρυξέλλες υπόσχονται ένταξη στην ΕΕ με βαρύτατο αντάλλαγμα την αποδοχή του ακρωτηριασμού του σερβικού κράτους με την απόσπαση του Κοσόβου.

«Η Βοσνία είναι μη βιώσιμη»

Πολιτικό παραλογισμό συνιστά και η συζήτηση για ένταξη της Βοσνίας στην ΕΕ. Πρόκειται για ένα κρατικό μόρφωμα – τερατούργημα που επέβαλαν οι Αμερικανοί και οι Ευρωπαίοι πριν από 15 χρόνια με τη Συνθήκη του Ντέιτον, το οποίο είναι αδύνατον να λειτουργήσει ως ενιαίο κράτος και όμως ΗΠΑ – ΕΕ επιμένουν πεισματικά και εκβιαστικά να μην επιτρέπουν τη φυσιολογική διάσπασή του.

Αντιθέτως, τώρα που στο Βελιγράδι υπάρχει πολιτική ηγεσία υποτελής στη Δύση, οι Ευρωπαίοι καταβάλλουν λυσσώδεις προσπάθειες να καταλύσουν ακόμη και την αυτονομία των δύο εθνικών κρατικών «οντοτήτων» που προβλέπει το Ντέιτον, τη σερβοβοσνιακή δημοκρατία από τη μια μεριά και την κροατομουσουλμανική ομοσπονδία από την άλλη. Επιδιώκουν να επιβάλουν ένα κράτος με ισχυρή κεντρική κυβέρνηση.

Με δεδομένο ότι οι Σερβοβόσνιοι, μετά τη φυγή εκατοντάδων χιλιάδων ομοεθνών τους προς τη Σερβία, έχουν απομείνει το 38% του πληθυσμού της Βοσνίας, αν αποδεχτούν την κατάλυση του κρατιδίου τους, θα υποδουλωθούν στην κρατομουσουλμανική πλειοψηφία. Λογικό είναι να ανθίστανται στον εξανδραποδισμό τους που επιδιώκουν ΗΠΑ και ΕΕ μέσω της επιβολής ενιαίου κράτους, με δόλωμα την ένταξη της Βοσνίας στην ευρωπαϊκή ολοκλήρωση.

Υπ’ αυτό το πρίσμα, οι Σερβοβόσνιοι αντιστάθηκαν στις διαπραγματεύσεις που συγκάλεσαν ΗΠΑ και ΕΕ τον περασμένο μήνα.

«Η Βοσνία είναι μια χώρα που δεν μπορεί να επιβιώσει», δήλωσε ο κάθε άλλο παρά σκληροτράχηλος Σερβοβόσνιος πρωθυπουργός Μίλοραντ Ντόντικ. «Εμείς παλεύουμε για να μην γίνει κάποια μέρα η Βοσνία-Ερζεγοβίνη μουσουλμανικό κράτος», πρόσθεσε.

«Γιατί να μην πούμε τα πράγματα με το όνομά τους; Οι διαπραγματεύσεις του Μπούτμιρ, θεωρούμενες ως η τελευταία ευκαιρία επιβίωσης της Βοσνίας-Ερζεγοβίνης, απέτυχαν», έγραψε η εφημερίδα του Σεράγεβο Oslobodjenje.

Πολύ πιο υπαρξιακά προβλήματα έχουν αυτές οι βαλκανικές χώρες από τις συζητήσεις για «επετειακή» ένταξη στην ΕΕ στα εκατοντάχρονα του Πρώτου Παγκοσμίου Πολέμου.

Σάββατο, 12 Δεκεμβρίου 2009

Alfried Wieczorek, Head of German museum says: ALEXANDER the GREAT was mainly GREEK


Mannheim, Germany - The head of a German museum which is set to show an exhibition about Alexander the Great weighed into a dispute between Skopje and Athens on Friday, saying the ancient leader had been predominantly Greek. The modern state of Macedonia, where the main language is a Slavic one, claims the heritage of ancient Macedonia.

"Alexander was predominantly Greek and definitely not an ancestor of contemporary Slavic Macedonians," said Alfried Wieczorek, head of the Reiss-Engelhorn Museums in the southern German city of Mannheim.

The exhibition devoted to the ancient general and ruler, who lived from 356 to 323 BC, opens on Saturday and runs till February 21.

For two decades, Athens has been objecting to its northern neighbour calling itself Macedonia. Skopje has named its airport after Alexander and insists on having Alexander's "star of Vergina" symbol on its coat of arms.

In an interview with the German Press Agency dpa, Wieczorek said, "The latest research shows very clearly yet again that the Macedonians in the days of Alexander were closely related to the contemporary Greeks."

He added, "In antiquity, Greeks and Macedonians could interact because they spoke the same language."

Athens has been insisting that the name Macedonia can only been applied to a province in its own north.

The country of Macedonia became independent in 1991 when Yugoslavia split up. The name issue has held up efforts to bring the new country into NATO and into formal assocation with the European Union.

The museum director referred to findings that its population of 2 million, one quarter of them Albanian speakers and three quarters Slavic speakers, are descended from people who immigrated in the 6th century of the modern era, long after Alexander's death.

http://www.earthtimes.org/articles/show/288354,german-museum-man-says-alexander-the-great-was-mainly-greek.html


«Ο Αλέξανδρος είναι Έλληνας και σε καμία περίπτωση πρόγονος των σημερινών Σλαβομακεδόνων». Η δήλωση αυτή, που μεταδόθηκε από το γερμανικό πρακτορείο ειδήσεων Deutsche Presse Agentur, έκανε ο κορυφαίος Γερμανός αρχαιολόγος Alfried Wieczorek, Διευθυντής του Αρχαιολογικού Μουσείου Reiss-Engelhorn Museum, στο Μάνχαϊμ της Γερμανίας,

Υπενθυμίζεται ότι στο Μουσείο του Μανχάϊμ εγκαινιάσθηκε στις 2 Οκτωβρίου 2009 και λειτουργεί μέχρι 21 Φεβρουαρίου 2010, με μεγάλη κοσμοσυρροή, η διεθνής έκθεση «Ο Αλέξανδρος και το Άνοιγμα του Κόσμου», όπου, για πρώτη φορά στα χρονικά, Μουσεία του Τατζικιστάν, του Αφγανιστάν, του Ιράν και το Ερμιτάζ της Αγίας Πετρούπολης απέστειλαν βαρύτιμα κειμήλια με τα οποία οι ανατολικοί Λαοί υμνούν τον Αλέξανδρο.

Την ημέρα των εγκαινίων το Γερμανικό Πρακτορείο Ειδήσεων μετέδωσε μεγάλο αφιέρωμα στην έκθεση όπου σημείωνε ότι «το σύγχρονο Κράτος, που αυτοαποκαλείται Μακεδονία και έχει κύρια γλώσσα την σλαβική, σφετερίζεται την παράδοση της αρχαίας Μακεδονίας». Το αφιέρωμα πλαισίωνε συνέντευξη του διευθυντού του Μουσείου, που δήλωνε κατηγορηματικά ότι «οι πρόσφατες έρευνες αποδεικνύουν με μεγάλη σαφήνεια, ακόμη μια φορά, πως οι Μακεδόνες την εποχή του Μεγάλου Αλεξάνδρου ήταν στενά συνδεδεμένοι με τους άλλους Έλληνες και μιλούσαν την ίδια γλώσσα».

Letter to President Barack Obama

On May 18th, 2009,
200 Classical Scholars from around the world, sent a letter to the President of the United States of America, Barack Obama.

Dear President Obama,

We, the undersigned scholars of Graeco-Roman antiquity, respectfully request that you intervene to clean up some of the historical debris left in southeast Europe by the previous U.S. administration.

On November 4, 2004, two days after the re-election of President George W. Bush, his administration unilaterally recognized the “Republic of Macedonia.” This action not only abrogated geographic and historic fact, but it also has unleashed a dangerous epidemic of historical revisionism, of which the most obvious symptom is the misappropriation by the government in Skopje of the most famous of Macedonians, Alexander the Great.

We believe that this silliness has gone too far, and that the U.S.A. has no business in supporting the subversion of history. Let us review facts. (The documentation for these facts [here in boldface] can be found attached and at: http://macedonia-evidence.org/documentation.html)

The land in question, with its modern capital at Skopje, was called Paionia in antiquity. Mts. Barnous and Orbelos (which form today the northern limits of Greece) provide a natural barrier that separated, and separates, Macedonia from its northern neighbor. The only real connection is along the Axios/Vardar River and even this valley “does not form a line of communication because it is divided by gorges.”

While it is true that the Paionians were subdued by Philip II, father of Alexander, in 358 B.C. they were not Macedonians and did not live in Macedonia. Likewise, for example, the Egyptians, who were subdued by Alexander, may have been ruled by Macedonians, including the famous Cleopatra, but they were never Macedonians themselves, and Egypt was never called Macedonia.

Rather, Macedonia and Macedonian Greeks have been located for at least 2,500 years just where the modern Greek province of Macedonia is. Exactly this same relationship is true for Attica and Athenian Greeks, Argos and Argive Greeks, Corinth and Corinthian Greeks, etc.

We do not understand how the modern inhabitants of ancient Paionia, who speak Slavic – a language introduced into the Balkans about a millennium after the death of Alexander – can claim him as their national hero. Alexander the Great was thoroughly and indisputably Greek. His great-great-great grandfather, Alexander I, competed in the Olympic Games where participation was limited to Greeks.

Even before Alexander I, the Macedonians traced their ancestry to Argos, and many of their kings used the head of Herakles - the quintessential Greek hero - on their coins.

Euripides – who died and was buried in Macedonia– wrote his play Archelaos in honor of the great-uncle of Alexander, and in Greek. While in Macedonia, Euripides also wrote the Bacchai, again in Greek. Presumably the Macedonian audience could understand what he wrote and what they heard.

Alexander’s father, Philip, won several equestrian victories at Olympia and Delphi, the two most Hellenic of all the sanctuaries in ancient Greece where non-Greeks were not allowed to compete. Even more significantly, Philip was appointed to conduct the Pythian Games at Delphi in 346 B.C. In other words, Alexander the Great’s father and his ancestors were thoroughly Greek. Greek was the language used by Demosthenes and his delegation from Athens when they paid visits to Philip, also in 346 B.C.

Another northern Greek, Aristotle, went off to study for nearly 20 years in the Academy of Plato. Aristotle subsequently returned to Macedonia and became the tutor of Alexander III. They used Greek in their classroom which can still be seen near Naoussa in Macedonia.

Alexander carried with him throughout his conquests Aristotle’s edition of Homer’s Iliad. Alexander also spread Greek language and culture throughout his empire, founding cities and establishing centers of learning. Hence inscriptions concerning such typical Greek institutions as the gymnasium are found as far away as Afghanistan. They are all written in Greek.

The questions follow: Why was Greek the lingua franca all over Alexander’s empire if he was a “Macedonian”? Why was the New Testament, for example, written in Greek?

The answers are clear: Alexander the Great was Greek, not Slavic, and Slavs and their language were nowhere near Alexander or his homeland until 1000 years later. This brings us back to the geographic area known in antiquity as Paionia. Why would the people who live there now call themselves Macedonians and their land Macedonia? Why would they abduct a completely Greek figure and make him their national hero?

The ancient Paionians may or may not have been Greek, but they certainly became Greekish, and they were never Slavs. They were also not Macedonians. Ancient Paionia was a part of the Macedonian Empire. So were Ionia and Syria and Palestine and Egypt and Mesopotamia and Babylonia and Bactria and many more. They may thus have become “Macedonian” temporarily, but none was ever “Macedonia”. The theft of Philip and Alexander by a land that was never Macedonia cannot be justified.

The traditions of ancient Paionia could be adopted by the current residents of that geographical area with considerable justification. But the extension of the geographic term “Macedonia” to cover southern Yugoslavia cannot. Even in the late 19th century, this misuse implied unhealthy territorial aspirations.

The same motivation is to be seen in school maps that show the pseudo-greater Macedonia, stretching from Skopje to Mt. Olympus and labeled in Slavic. The same map and its claims are in calendars, bumper stickers, bank notes, etc., that have been circulating in the new state ever since it declared its independence from Yugoslavia in 1991. Why would a poor land-locked new state attempt such historical nonsense? Why would it brazenly mock and provoke its neighbor?

However one might like to characterize such behavior, it is clearly not a force for historical accuracy, nor for stability in the Balkans. It is sad that the United States of America has abetted and encouraged such behavior.

We call upon you, Mr. President, to help - in whatever ways you deem appropriate - the government in Skopje to understand that it cannot build a national identity at the expense of historic truth. Our common international society cannot survive when history is ignored, much less when history is fabricated.


Sincerely,

NAME TITLE INSTITUTION

Anagnostis P. Agelarakis, Professor of Anthropology, Adelphi University (USA)

Ioannis M. Akamatis, Professor of Classical Archaeology, University of Thessaloniki (Greece)

June W. Allison, Professor Emerita, Department of Greek and Latin, The Ohio State University (USA)

Georgios Anagnostopoulos, Professor of Philosophy, University of California-San Diego (USA)

Mariana Anagnostopoulos, Assistant Professor of Philosophy, California State University, Fresno (USA)

Ronnie Ancona, Professor of Classics, Hunter College and The Graduate Center, CUNY (USA)

John P. Anton, Distinguished Professor of Greek Philosophy and Culture University of South Florida (USA)

Dr. Norman George Ashton, Senior Honorary Research Fellow, The University of Western Australia (Australia)

Lucia Athanassaki, Associate Professor of Classical Philology, University of Crete (Greece)

Effie F. Athanassopoulos, Associate Professor Anthropology and Classics, University of Nebraska-Lincoln (USA)

Harry C. Avery, Professor of Classics, University of Pittsburgh (USA)

Dr. Dirk Backendorf. Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur Mainz (Germany)

Elizabeth C. Banks, Associate Professor of Classics (ret.), University of Kansas (USA)

Leonidas Bargeliotes, Emeritus Professor of Philosophy, University of Athens, President of the Olympic Center for Philosophy and Culture (Greece)

Alice Bencivenni, Ricercatore di Storia Greca, Universita di Bologna (Italy)

David L. Berkey, Assistant Professor of History, California State University, Fresno (USA)

Luigi Beschi, professore emerito di Archeologia Classica, Universita di Firenze (Italy)

Josine H. Blok, professor of Ancient History and Classical Civilization, Utrecht University (The Netherlands)

Alan Boegehold, Emeritus Professor of Classics, Brown University (USA)

Efrosyni Boutsikas, Lecturer of Classical Archaeology, University of Kent (UK)

Ewen Bowie, Emeritus Fellow, Corpus Christi College, Oxford (UK)

Keith Bradley, Eli J. and Helen Shaheen Professor of Classics, Concurrent Professor of History, University of Notre Dame (USA)

Kostas Buraselis, Professor of Ancient History, University of Athens (Greece)

Stanley M. Burstein, Professor Emeritus, California State University, Los Angeles (USA)

Francis Cairns, Professor of Classical Languages, The Florida State University (USA)

John McK. Camp II, Agora Excavations and Professor of Archaeology, ASCSA, Athens (Greece)

David A. Campbell, Emeritus Professor of Classics. University of Victoria, B.C. (Canada)

Paul Cartledge, A.G. Leventis Professor of Greek Culture, University of Cambridge (UK)

Paavo Castren, Professor of Classical Philology Emeritus, University of Helsinki (Finland)

William Cavanagh, Professor of Aegean Prehistory, University of Nottingham (UK)

Angelos Chaniotis, Professor, Senior Research Fellow, All Souls College, Oxford (UK)

Paul Christesen, Professor of Ancient Greek History, Dartmouth College (USA)

James J. Clauss, Professor of Classics, University of Washington (USA)

Ada Cohen, Associate Professor of Art History, Dartmouth College (USA)

Randall M. Colaizzi, Lecturer in Classical Studies, University of Massachusetts-Boston (USA)

Kathleen M. Coleman, Professor of Latin, Harvard University (USA)

Rev. Dr. Demetrios J Constantelos, Charles Cooper Townsend Professor of Ancient and Byzantine history, Emeritus; Distinguished Research Scholar in Residence at the Richard Stockton College of New Jersey (USA)

Michael B. Cosmopoulos, Ph.D., Professor and Endowed Chair in Greek Archaeology, University of Missouri-St. Louis (USA)

Carole L. Crumley, PhD., Professor of European Archaeology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (USA)

Kevin F. Daly, Assistant Professor of Classics, Bucknell University (USA)

Joseph W. Day, Professor of Classics, Wabash College (USA)

Francois de Callatay, Professor of Monetary and Financial history of the Greek world, Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes (Paris/Sorbonne) and Professor of Financial history of the Greco-Roman world, Universite libre de Bruxelles (France and Brussels)

Wolfgang Decker, Professor emeritus of sport history, Deutsche Sporthochschule, Koln (Germany)

Luc Deitz, Ausserplanmassiger Professor of Mediaeval and Renaissance Latin, University of Trier (Germany), and Curator of manuscripts and rare books, National Library of Luxembourg (Luxembourg)

Charalambos Dendrinos, Lecturer in Byzantine Literature and Greek Palaeography, Acting Director, The Hellenic Institute, Royal Holloway, University of London (UK)

Michael Dewar, Professor of Classics, University of Toronto (Canada)

John D. Dillery, Associate Professor of Classics, University of Virginia (USA

John Dillon, Emeritus Professor of Greek, Trinity College Dublin (Ireland)

Sheila Dillon, Associate Professor, Depts. of Art, Art History & Visual Studies and Classical Studies, Duke University (USA)

Michael D. Dixon, Associate Professor of History, University of Southern Indiana (USA)

Douglas Domingo-Foraste, Professor of Classics, California State University, Long Beach (USA)

Myrto Dragona-Monachou, Professor emerita of Philosophy, University of Athens (Greece)

Stella Drougou, Professor of Classical Archaeology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece)

Pierre Ducrey, professeur honoraire, Universite de Lausanne (Switzerland)

John Duffy, Professor, Department of the Classics, Harvard University (USA)

Roger Dunkle, Professor of Classics Emeritus, Brooklyn College, City University of New York (USA)

Michael M. Eisman, Associate Professor Ancient History and Classical Archaeology, Department of History, Temple University (USA)

Mostafa El-Abbadi, Professor Emeritus, University of Alexandria (Egypt)

R. Malcolm Errington, Professor fur Alte Geschichte (Emeritus) Philipps- Universitat, Marburg (Germany)

Christos C. Evangeliou, Professor of Ancient Hellenic Philosophy, Towson University, Maryland, Honorary President of International Association for Greek Philosophy (USA)

Panagiotis Faklaris, Assistant Professor of Classical Archaeology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece)

Denis Feeney, Giger Professor of Latin, Princeton University (USA)

Michael Ferejohn, Associate Professor of Ancient Philosophy, Duke University (USA)

Kleopatra Ferla, Ph.D. in Ancient History, Head of Research and Management of Cultural Information, Foundation of the Hellenic World, Athens (Greece)

Elizabeth A. Fisher, Professor of Classics and Art History, Randolph-Macon College (USA)

Nick Fisher, Professor of Ancient History, Cardiff University (UK)

R. Leon Fitts, Asbury J Clarke Professor of Classical Studies, Emeritus, FSA, Scot., Dickinson Colllege (USA)

John M. Fossey FRSC, FSA, Emeritus Professor of Art History (and Archaeology), McGill Univertsity, Montreal, and Curator of Archaeology, Montreal Museum of Fine Arts (Canada)

Dr. Athanasios Fotiou, Adjunct Professor, College of the Humanities, Greek and Roman Studies, Carleton University, Ottawa (Canada)

Robin Lane Fox, University Reader in Ancient History, New College, Oxford (UK)

Dr. Lee Fratantuono, William Francis Whitlock Professor of Latin, Ohio Wesleyan University (USA)

Stavros Frangoulidis, Associate Professor of Latin. Aristotelian University of Thessaloniki (Greece)

William K. Freiert, Professor of Classics and Hanson-Peterson Chair of Liberal Studies, Gustavus Adolphus College (USA)

Rainer Friedrich, Professor of Classics Emeritus, Dalhousie University, Halifax, N.S. (Canada)

Heide Froning, Professor of Classical Archaeology, University of Marburg (Germany)

Peter Funke, Professor of Ancient History, University of Muenster (Germany)

Traianos Gagos, Professor of Greek and Papyrology, University of Michigan (USA)

Karl Galinsky, Cailloux Centennial Professor of Classics, University of Texas, Austin (USA)

Robert Garland, Roy D. and Margaret B. Wooster Professor of the Classics, Colgate University, Hamilton NY (USA)

Hans-Joachim Gehrke, Prof. Dr., President of the German Archaeological Institute Berlin (Germany)

Dr. Ioannis Georganas, Researcher, Department of History and Archaeology, Foundation of the Hellenic World (Greece)

Douglas E. Gerber, Professor Emeritus of Classical Studies, University of Western Ontario (Canada)

Dr. Andre Gerolymatos, Chair and Professor of Hellenic Studies, Simon Fraser University (Canada)

Stephen L. Glass, John A. McCarthy Professor of Classics & Classical Archaeology, Pitzer College: The Claremont Colleges (USA)

Hans R. Goette, Professor of Classical Archaeology, University of Giessen (Germany); German Archaeological Institute, Berlin (Germany)

Sander M. Goldberg, Professor of Classics, UCLA (USA)

Mark Golden, Professor, Department of Classics, University of Winnipeg (Canada)

Ellen Greene, Joseph Paxton Presidential Professor of Classics, University of Oklahoma (USA)

Robert Gregg, Teresa Moore Professor of Religious Studies, Emeritus, Director, The Abbasi Program in Islamic Studies, Stanford University (USA)

Frederick T. Griffiths, Professor of Classics, Amherst College (USA)

Dr. Peter Grossmann, Member emeritus, German Archaeological Institute, Cairo (Egypt)

Erich S. Gruen, Gladys Rehard Wood Professor of History and Classics, Emeritus, University of California, Berkeley (USA)

Martha Habash, Associate Professor of Classics, Creighton University (USA)

Christian Habicht, Professor of Ancient History, Emeritus, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton (USA)

Donald C. Haggis, Nicholas A. Cassas Term Professor of Greek Studies, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (USA)

Judith P. Hallett, Professor of Classics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (USA)

Kim Hartswick, Academic Director, CUNY Baccalaureate for Unique and Interdisciplinary Studies, New York City (USA)

Prof. Paul B. Harvey, Jr. Head, Department of Classics and Ancient Mediterranean Studies, The Pennsylvania State University (USA)

Eleni Hasaki, Associate Professor of Classical Archaeology, University of Arizona (USA)

Rosalia Hatzilambrou, Ph.D., Researcher, Academy of Athens (Greece)

Miltiades B. Hatzopoulos, Director, Research Centre for Greek and Roman Antiquity, National Research Foundation, Athens (Greece)

Stephan Heilen, Associate Professor of Classics, University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign (USA)

Wolf-Dieter Heilmeyer, Prof. Dr., Freie Universitat Berlin und Antikensammlung der Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin (Germany)

Pontus Hellstrom, Professor of Classical archaeology and ancient history, Uppsala University (Sweden)

Steven W. Hirsch, Associate Professor of Classics and History, Tufts University (USA)

Karl-J. Holkeskamp, Professor of Ancient History, University of Cologne (Germany)

Frank L. Holt, Professor of Ancient History, University of Houston (USA)

Dan Hooley, Professor of Classics, University of Missouri (USA)

Meredith C. Hoppin, Gagliardi Professor of Classical Languages, Williams College, Williamstown, MA (USA)

Caroline M. Houser, Professor of Art History Emerita, Smith College (USA) and Affiliated Professor, University of Washington (USA)

Professor Carl Huffman, Department of Classics, DePauw University (USA)

John Humphrey, Professor of Greek and Roman Studies, University of Calgary (Canada)

Frosen Jaakko, Professor of Greek philology, University of Helsinki (Finland)

Dr Thomas Johansen, Reader in Ancient Philosophy, University of Oxford (UK)

Vincent Jolivet, Archaeologist CNRS, Paris [French School Rome] (Italy)

Georgia Kafka, Visiting Professor of Modern Greek Language, Literature and History, University of New Brunswick (Canada)

Mika Kajava, Professor of Greek Language and Literature; Head of the Department of Classical Studies, University of Helsinki (Finland)

Anthony Kaldellis, Professor of Greek and Latin, The Ohio State University (USA)

Eleni Kalokairinou, Assistant Professor of Philosophy, Secretary of the Olympic Center of Philosophy and Culture (Cyprus)

Lilian Karali, Professor of Prehistoric and Environmental Archaeology, University of Athens (Greece)

Andromache Karanika, Assistant Professor of Classics, University of California, Irvine (USA)

Robert A. Kaster, Professor of Classics and Kennedy Foundation Professor of Latin, Princeton University (USA)

Dr. Athena Kavoulaki, Lecturer, Department of Philology, University of Crete, Rethymnon (Greece)

Vassiliki Kekela, Adjunct Professor of Greek Studies, Classics Department, Hunter College, City University of New York (USA)

John F. Kenfield, Associate Professor, Department of Art History, Rutgers University (USA)

Dietmar Kienast, Professor Emeritus of Ancient History, University of Duesseldorf (Germany)

Karl Kilinski II, University Distinguished Teaching Professor, Southern Methodist University (USA)

Dr. Florian Knauss, associate director, Staatliche Antikensammlungen und Glyptothek Muenchen (Germany)

Denis Knoepfler, Professor of Greek Epigraphy and History, College de France (Paris)

Ortwin Knorr, Associate Professor of Classics, Willamette University (USA)

Robert B. Koehl, Professor of Archaeology, Department of Classical and Oriental Studies Hunter College, City University of New York (USA)

Thomas Koentges, Visiting lecturer, Ancient History, University of Leipzig (Germany)

Georgia Kokkorou-Alevras, Professor of Classical Archaeology, University of Athens (Greece)

Ann Olga Koloski-Ostrow, Associate Professor and Chair, Department of Classical Studies, Brandeis University (USA)

Eric J. Kondratieff, Assistant Professor of Classics and Ancient History, Department of Greek & Roman Classics, Temple University (USA)

Dr Eleni Kornarou, Visiting Lecturer of Ancient Greek Literature, Dept. of Classic and Philosophy, University of Cyprus (Cyprus)

Haritini Kotsidu, Apl. Prof. Dr. fur Klassische Archaologie, Goethe-Universitat, Frankfurt/M. (Germany)

Lambrini Koutoussaki, Dr., Lecturer of Classical Archaeology, University of Zurich (Switzerland)

David Kovacs, Hugh H. Obear Professor of Classics, University of Virginia (USA)

Prof. Dr. Ulla Kreilinger, Institut fur Klassische Archaologie, Universtitat Erlangen (Germany)

Dr. Christos Kremmydas, Lecturer in Ancient Greek History, Royal Holloway, University of London (UK)

Peter Krentz, W. R. Grey Professor of Classics and History, Davidson College (USA)

Friedrich Krinzinger, Professor of Classical Archaeology Emeritus, University of Vienna (Austria)

Michael Kumpf, Professor of Classics, Valparaiso University (USA)

Donald G. Kyle, Professor of History, University of Texas at Arlington (USA)

Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Helmut Kyrieleis, former president of the German Archaeological Institute, Berlin (Germany)

Margaret L. Laird, Assistant Professor, Roman art and archaeology, University of Washington (USA)

Gerald V. Lalonde, Benedict Professor of Classics, Grinnell College (USA)

Steven Lattimore, Professor Emeritus of Classics, University of California, Los Angeles (USA)

Francis M. Lazarus, President, University of Dallas (USA)

Mary R. Lefkowitz, Andrew W. Mellon Professor in the Humanities, Emerita Wellesley College (USA)

Irene S. Lemos FSA, Professor in Classical Archaeology,, S.Ioannou Centre for Classical and Byzantine Studies, Oxford University (UK)

Ioannes G. Leontiades, Assistant Professor of Byzantine History, Aristotle University of Thessalonike (Greece)

Iphigeneia Leventi, Assistant Professor of Classical Archaeology, University of Thessaly (Greece)

Daniel B. Levine, Professor of Classical Studies, University of Arkansas (USA)

Christina Leypold, Dr. phil., Archaeological Institute, University of Zurich (Switzerland)

Vayos Liapis, Associate Professor of Greek, Centre d’Etudes Classiques & Departement de Philosophie, Universite de Montreal (Canada)

Hugh Lloyd-Jones, Professor of Greek Emeritus, University of Oxford (UK)

Yannis Lolos, Assistant Professor, History, Archaeology, and Anthropology, University of Thessaly (Greece)

Stanley Lombardo, Professor of Classics, University of Kansas (USA)

Anthony Long, Professor of Classics and Irving G. Stone Professor of Literature, University of California, Berkeley (USA)

Julia Lougovaya, Assistant Professor, Department of Classics, Columbia University (USA)

Dr. John Ma, Lecturer in Ancient History, Oxford University and Tutorial Fellow in Ancient History, Corpus Christi College, Oxford (UK)

A.D. Macro, Hobart Professor of Classical Languages emeritus, Trinity College (USA)

John Magee, Professor, Department of Classics, Director, Centre for Medieval Studies, University of Toronto (Canada)

Dr. Christofilis Maggidis, Associate Professor of Archaeology, Dickinson College (USA)

Chryssa Maltezou, Professor emeritus, University of Athens, Director of the Hellenic Institute of Byzantine and Postbyzantine Studies in Venice (Italy)

Jeannette Marchand, Assistant Professor of Classics, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio (USA)

Evangeline Markou, Adjunct Lecturer in Greek History, Open University of Cyprus (Cyprus)

Anna Marmodoro, Faculty of Philosophy, University of Oxford (UK)

Richard P. Martin, Antony and Isabelle Raubitschek Professor in Classics, Stanford University (USA)

Maria Mavroudi, Professor of Byzantine History, University of California, Berkeley (USA)

Jody Maxmin, Associate Professor, Dept. of Art & Art History, Stanford University (USA)

Alexander Mazarakis-Ainian, Professor of Classical Archaeology, University of Thessaly (Greece)

James R. McCredie, Sherman Fairchild Professor emeritus; Director, Excavations in Samothrace Institute of Fine Arts, New York University (USA)

Brian McGing M.A., Ph.D., F.T.C.D., M.R.I.A., Regius Professor of Greek, Trinity College Dublin (Ireland)

James C. McKeown, Professor of Classics, University of Wisconsin-Madison (USA)

Richard McKirahan, Edwin Clarence Norton of Classics and Professor of Philosophy, Pitzer College: The Claremont Colleges (USA)

Robert A. Mechikoff, Professor and Life Member of the International Society of Olympic Historians, San Diego State University (USA)

Andreas Mehl, Professor of Ancient History, Universitaet Halle-Wittenberg (Germany)

John Richard Melville-Jones, Winthrop Professor, Classics and Ancient History, University of Western Australia (Australia)

Marion Meyer, Professor of Classical Archaeology, University of Vienna (Austria)

Dr. Aristotle Michopoulos, Professor & Chair, Greek Studies Dept., Hellenic College (Brookline, MA, USA)

Harald Mielsch, Professor of Classical Archeology, University of Bonn (Germany)

Stephen G. Miller, Professor of Classical Archaeology Emeritus, University of California, Berkeley (USA)

Lynette G. Mitchell, Senior Lecturer in Classics & Ancient History, Exeter University (UK)

Phillip Mitsis, A.S. Onassis Professor of Classics and Philosophy, New York University (USA)

Peter Franz Mittag, Professor fur Alte Geschichte, Universitat zu Koln (Germany)

David Gordon Mitten, James Loeb Professor of Classical Art and Archaeology, Harvard University (USA)

Mette Moltesen, MA, Curator of Ancient Art, Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen (Denmark)

Margaret S. Mook, Associate Professor of Classical Studies, Iowa State University (USA)

Anatole Mori, Associate Professor of Classical Studies, University of Missouri- Columbia (USA)

William S. Morison, Associate Professor of Ancient History, Grand Valley State University (USA)

Jennifer Sheridan Moss, Associate Professor, Wayne State University (USA)

Aliki Moustaka, Professor of Classical Archaeology, Aristotelian University of Thessaloniki (Greece)

Mark Munn, Professor of Ancient Greek History and Greek Archaeology, the Pennsylvania State University (USA)

Ioannis Mylonopoulos, Assistant Professor of Greek Art History and Archaeology, Columbia University, New York (USA)

Alexander Nehamas, Edmund N. Carpenter II Class of 1943 Professor in the Humanities, Professor of Philosophy and Comparative Literature, Princeton University (USA)

Richard Neudecker, PD of Classical Archaeology, Deutsches Archaologisches Institut Rom (Italy)

James M.L. Newhard, Associate Professor of Classics, College of Charleston (USA)

Carole E. Newlands, Professor of Classics, University of Wisconsin, Madison (USA)

Andrew G. Nichols, Visiting Lecturer of Classics, University of Florida (USA)

Jessica L. Nitschke, Assistant Professor of Classics, Georgetown University (USA)

John Maxwell O'Brien, Professor of History, Queens College, City University of New York (USA)

James J. O'Hara, Paddison Professor of Latin, The University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (USA)

Martin Ostwald, Professor of Classics (ret.), Swarthmore College and Professor of Classical Studies (ret.), University of Pennsylvania (USA)

Olga Palagia, Professor of Classical Archaeology, University of Athens (Greece)

Beata M. Kitsikis Panagopoulos, Professor of Art History, Retired, San Jose State University, Caifornia (USA)

Christos Panayides, Associate Professor of Philosophy, University of Nicosia, (Cyprus)

Vassiliki Panoussi, Associate Professor of Classical Studies, The College of William and Mary (USA)

Maria C. Pantelia, Professor of Classics, University of California, Irvine (USA)

Pantos A.Pantos, Adjunct Faculty, Department of History, Archaeology and Social Anthropology, University of Thessaly (Greece)

Eleni Papaefthymiou, Curator of the Numismatic Collection of the Foundation of the Hellenic World (Greece)

Maria Papaioannou, Assistant Professor in Classical Archaeology, University of New Brunswick (Canada)

Anthony J. Papalas, Professor of Ancient History, East Carolina University (USA)

Nassos Papalexandrou, Associate Professor, The University of Texas at Austin (USA)

Polyvia Parara, Visiting Assistant Professor of Greek Language and Civilization, Department of Classics, Georgetown University (USA)

Richard W. Parker, Associate Professor of Classics, Brock University (Canada)

Robert Parker, Wykeham Professor of Ancient History, New College, Oxford (UK)

Robert J. Penella, Professor and Chairman, Classics, Fordham University (USA)

Anastasia-Erasmia Peponi, Associate Professor of Classics, Stanford University (USA)

Jacques Perreault, Professor of Greek archaeology, Universite de Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

Patrick Pfeil, magister artium Universitat Leipzig, Alte Geschichte (Germany)

Edward A. Phillips, Professor of Classics at Grinnell College (USA)

Yanis Pikoulas, Associate Professor of Ancient Greek History, University of Thessaly (Greece)

Lefteris Platon, Assistant Professor of Archaeology, University of Athens (Greece)

John Pollini, Professor of Classical Art & Archaeology, University of Southern California (USA)

David Potter, Arthur F. Thurnau Professor of Greek and Latin. The University of Michigan (USA)

Daniel Potts, Edwin Cuthbert Hall Professor of Middle Eastern Archaeology, University of Sydney (Australia)

Robert L. Pounder, Professor Emeritus of Classics, Vassar College (USA)

Nikolaos Poulopoulos, Assistant Professor in History and Chair in Modern Greek Studies, McGill University (Canada)

Selene Psoma, Senior Lecturer of Ancient History, University of Athens (Greece)

William H. Race, George L. Paddison Professor of Classics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (USA)

John T. Ramsey, Professor of Classics, University of Illinois at Chicago (USA)

Christian R. Raschle, Assistant Professor of Roman History, Centre d’Etudes Classiques & Departement d'Histoire, Universite de Montreal (Canada)

Karl Reber, Professor of Classical Archaeology, University of Lausanne (Switzerland)

Gary Reger, Professor of History Trinity College, Connecticut (USA)

Rush Rehm, Professor of Classics and Drama, Stanford University (USA)

Heather L. Reid, Professor of Philosophy, Morningside College (USA)

Prof. Dr. Christoph Reusser, Professor of Classical Archaeology, University of Zurich (Switzerland)

Werner Riess, Associate Professor of Classics, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (USA)

Dr Tracey E Rihll, Senior lecturer, Department of Classics, Ancient History and Egyptology, Swansea University ( Wales, UK)

Robert H. Rivkin, Ancient Studies Department, University of Maryland Baltimore County (USA)

Walter M. Roberts III, Assistant Professor of Classics, University of Vermont (USA)

Barbara Saylor Rodgers, Professor of Classics, The University of Vermont (USA)

Robert H. Rodgers. Lyman-Roberts Professor of Classical Languages and Literature, University of Vermont (USA)

Guy MacLean Rogers, Kemper Professor of Classics and History, Wellesley College (USA)

Roberto Romano, professore di ruolo (II level) di Civilta bizantina e Storia bizantina, Universita "Federico II" di Napoli (Italy)

Nathan Rosenstein, Professor of Ancient History, The Ohio State University (USA)

John C. Rouman, Professor Emeritus of Classics, University of New Hampshire, (USA)

Dr. James Roy, Reader in Greek History (retired), University of Nottingham (UK)

Steven H. Rutledge, Associate Professor of Classics, Department of Classics, University of Maryland, College Park (USA)

Daniel J. Sahas, Professor Emeritus, University of Waterloo (Canada)

Christina A. Salowey, Associate Professor of Classics, Hollins University (USA)

Pierre Sanchez, Professor of Ancient History, University of Geneva (Switzerland)

Theodore Scaltsas, Professor of Ancient Greek Philosophy, University of Edinburgh (UK)

Thomas F. Scanlon, Professor of Classics, University of California, Riverside (USA)

Prof. Dr. Thomas Schafer, Institut fur Klassische Archaologie, Universitat Tubingen (Germany)

Bernhard Schmaltz, Prof. Dr. Archaologisches Institut der CAU, Kiel (Germany)

Prof. Dr. Andras Schmidt-Colinet, Professor of Classical Archaeology, University of Vienna (Austria)

Robert C. Schmiel, Prof. Emeritus of Greek & Roman Studies, University of Calgary (Canada)

Rolf M. Schneider, Professor of Classical Archaeology, Ludwig-Maximilians- Universitat Munchen (Germany)

Joseph B. Scholten, PhD, Associate Director, Office of International Programs/Affiliate Assoc. Prof. of Classics, University of Maryland, College Park (USA)

Peter Scholz, Professor of Ancient History and Culture, University of Stuttgart (Germany)

Christof Schuler, director, Commission for Ancient History and Epigraphy of the German Archaeological Institute, Munich (Germany)

Paul D. Scotton, Assoociate Professor Classical Archaeology and Classics, California State University Long Beach (USA)

Danuta Shanzer, Professor of Classics and Medieval Studies, The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Fellow of the Medieval Academy of America (USA)

James P. Sickinger, Associate Professor of Classics, Florida State University (USA)

Athanasios Sideris, Ph.D., Head of the History and Archaeology Department, Foundation of the Hellenic World, Athens (Greece)

G. M. Sifakis, Professor Emeritus of Classics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki & New York University (Greece & USA)

Christos Simelidis, British Academy Postdoctoral Fellow, Lincoln College, University of Oxford (UK)

Henk W. Singor, Associate Professor of Ancient History Leiden University (Netherlands)

Prof. Dr. Ulrich Sinn, Professor of Classical Archaeology, University of Wurzburg (Germany)

Marilyn B. Skinner Professor of Classics, University of Arizona (USA)

Niall W. Slater, Samuel Candler Dobbs Professor of Latin and Greek, Emory University (USA)

Peter M. Smith, Associate Professor of Classics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (USA)

Dr. Philip J. Smith, Research Associate in Classical Studies, McGill University (Canada)

Susan Kirkpatrick Smith Assistant Professor of Anthropology Kennesaw State University (USA)

Antony Snodgrass, Professor Emeritus of Classical Archaeology, University of Cambridge (UK)

Gina M. Soter, Lecturer IV, Classical Studies, The University of Michigan (USA)

Slawomir Sprawski, Assistant Professor of Ancient History, Jagiellonian University, Krakow (Poland)

Stylianos V. Spyridakis, Professor of Ancient History. University of California, Davis (USA)

Theodosia Stefanidou-Tiveriou, Professor of Classical Archaeology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece)

Rachel Sternberg, Associate Professor of Classics, Case Western Reserve University (USA)

Dr. Tom Stevenson, Lecturer in Classics and Ancient History, University of Queensland (Australia)

Andrew Stewart, Nicholas C. Petris Professor of Greek Studies, University of California, Berkeley (USA)

Oliver Stoll, Univ.-Prof. Dr., Alte Geschichte/ Ancient History,Universitat Passau (Germany)

Richard Stoneman, Honorary Fellow, University of Exeter (UK)

Ronald Stroud, Klio Distinguished Professor of Classical Languages and Literature Emeritus, University of California, Berkeley (USA)

Sarah Culpepper Stroup, Associate Professor of Classics, University of Washington (USA)

Dr Panico J. Stylianou, Lecturer in Ancient History, Lady Margaret Hall, University of Oxford (UK)

Thomas A. Suits, Emeritus Professor of Classical Languages, University of Connecticut (USA)

Nancy Sultan, Professor and Director, Greek & Roman Studies, Illinois Wesleyan University (USA)

Peter Michael Swan, Professor of History Emeritus, University of Saskatchewan (Canada)

David W. Tandy, Professor of Classics, University of Tennessee (USA)

James Tatum, Aaron Lawrence Professor of Classics, Dartmouth College (USA)

Martha C. Taylor, Associate Professor of Classics, Loyola College in Maryland (USA)

Petros Themelis, Professor Emeritus of Classical Archaeology, Athens (Greece)

Eberhard Thomas, Priv.-Doz. Dr.,Archaologisches Institut der Universitat zu Koln (Germany)

Michalis Tiverios, Professor of Classical Archaeology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece)

Michael K. Toumazou, Professor of Classics, Davidson College (USA)

Stephen V. Tracy, Professor of Greek and Latin Emeritus, Ohio State University (USA)

Prof. Dr. Erich Trapp, Austrian Academy of Sciences/Vienna resp. University of Bonn (Germany)

Christopher Trinacty, Keiter Fellow in Classics, Amherst College (USA)

Stephen M. Trzaskoma, Associate Professor of Classics, University of New Hampshire (USA)

Vasiliki Tsamakda, Professor of Christian Archaeology and Byzantine History of Art, University of Mainz (Germany)

Christopher Tuplin, Professor of Ancient History, University of Liverpool (UK)

Yannis Tzifopoulos, Associate Professor of Ancient Greek and Epigraphy, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece)

Gretchen Umholtz, Lecturer, Classics and Art History, University of Massachusetts, Boston (USA)

Panos Valavanis, Professor of Classical Archaeology, University of Athens (Greece)

Eric R. Varner, Associate Professor, Departments of Classics and Art History, Emory University, Atlanta (USA)

Athanassios Vergados, Visiting Assistant Professor of Classics, Franklin & Marshall College (USA)

Frederik J. Vervaet, PhD, Lecturer in Ancient History. School of Historical Studies The University of Melbourne (Australia)

Christina Vester, Assistant Professor of Classics, University of Waterloo (Canada)

Dr. Zsolt Visy, Leiter Universität Pécs Lehrstuhl für Alte Geschichte und Archäologie, Archäologisches Seminar (Hungary)

Emmanuel Voutiras, Professor of Classical Archaeology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece)

Speros Vryonis, Jr., Alexander S. Onassis Professor (Emeritus) of Hellenic Civilization and Culture, New York University (USA)

Michael B. Walbank, Professor Emeritus of Greek, Latin & Ancient History, The University of Calgary (Canada)

Dr. Irma Wehgartner, Curator of the Martin von Wagner Museum der Universitat Wurzburg (Germany)

Bonna D. Wescoat, Associate Professor, Art History and Ancient Mediterranean Studies, Emory University (USA)

E. Hector Williams, Professor of Classical Archaeology, University of British Columbia (Canada)

Peter James Wilson FAHA, William Ritchie Professor of Classics, The University of Sydney (Australia)

Roger J. A. Wilson, Professor of the Archaeology of the Roman Empire, and Director, Centre for the Study of Ancient Sicily, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)

Engelbert Winter, Professor for Ancient History, University of Munster (Germany)

Timothy F. Winters, Ph.D. Alumni Assn. Distinguished Professor of Classics Austin Peay State University (USA)

Ioannis Xydopoulos, Assistant Professor in Ancient History, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece)

David C. Young, Professor of Classics Emeritus, University of Florida (USA)

Maria Ypsilanti, Assistant Professor of Ancient Greek Literature, University of Cyprus (Cyprus)

Katerina Zacharia, Associate Professor and Chair, Department of Classics & Archaeology, Loyola Marymount University (USA)

Michael Zahrnt, Professor fur Alte Geschichte, Universitat zu Koln (Germany)

Paul Zanker, Professor Emeritus of Classical Studies, University of Munich (Germany)

Froma I. Zeitlin, Ewing Professor of Greek Language & Literature, Professor of Comparative Literature, Princeton University (USA)

332 signatures as of June 22nd, 2009, that were sent with the update.

The original letter sent on May 18th, 2009, had 200 signatures.

For the growing list of scholars, please go to the Addenda.


macedonia-evidence.org


Παρασκευή, 28 Νοεμβρίου 2008

Ancient Macedonian Language

Australian Macedonian Advisory Council
November 28, 2008


GENERAL

The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Writing Systems defines a writing system as "a set of visible or tactile signs used to represent units of language in a systematic way". This simple explanation encompasses a large spectrum of writing systems, with vastly different stylistic and structural characteristics spanning across the many regions of the globe. Therefore the inscription or the script was, is and will be the major definition source of a language. There is no defined line between a language and a dialect, but it is often said that a language is a dialect with an army and a navy, a statement credited to Max Weinreich.

To the question what kind of language did the ancient Macedonians use, the answer can only be given based on the existing references in ancient documents, and the excavated inscriptions. What we have concluded is that the Ancient Macedonians were Hellenophon; the original dialect of the Hellenic language they used (Macedonian dialect) was very much similar to the Doric dialect (that is in accordance to Herodotus' references on the common origin of the Dorians and the Macedonians). Later on (in the Hellenistic era) that dialect was gradually replaced by the ´Koini Attiki´ dialect, just like in all of the other Greek city-states. Every native Macedonian name, is Hellenic and is formed in the Hellenic way of producing words, for example the names: ´Adista, Philista, Sostrata, Philotas, Perdikkas, Mahatas´ and many more.

The strongest evidence of the Greekness of the Macedonian dialect are:

The excavated inscriptions, where you find only Greek characters and words

The coins from Macedonia, where again you find only Greek characters and words

The many quotations and comments of the ancient writers on the Macedonians' speech

The characteristics of the Macedonian dialect

Etymology of names in Macedonia

A few years ago, a German linguist by the name Otto Hoffman wrote a book with the title "Makedonians, their language and their Ethnicity". Hoffman analyzed the paradoxical or idiomatic words (calling them languages), which past grammatical, lexicographers and more in general everyone engaged around the Hellenic language had noted them as "worthy to be analyzed" in ´Makedonia´.

According to Hoffman, his conclusions after "supervising" others work are:

"And now after supervising the ancient ´Makedonian´ linguistic thesaurus we are posting the decisive question, if what is adding to the ´Makedonian´ language its character, are the Hellenic or the barbarian elements of it, the response cannot be of any doubts. From the 39 ´languages´ that according to Gustav Mayer their form was ´completely alien´ has been proven after this research of mine, that 10 of them are clearly Hellenic; with 4 more possibly dialectical forms of common Hellenic words, so from the entire collection are remaining only 15 words appearing to be justifiable or at least suspected of anti-Hellenic origins. Adding to those 15, few others which with regards their vocals could be Hellenic, without till now being confirmed as such, then their number (in comparison to the number of pure Hellenic ones in the Macedonian language), is so small that the GENERAL HELLENIC CHARACTER OF THE ´MAKEDONIAN´ LINGUISTIC TREASURE CAN NOT BE DOUBTED."

Major evidence worth noting also involved the ancient theaters. It is a well-known fact that only the Ancient Greeks had theaters in Classical period, namely: Dion, Vergina, Philippi, and Thassos (all in Macedonia). The theater of Dion hosted the first performance (before an audience of Greek-speaking Macedonians), of Euripides world-famous tragedy ´Bacchae´, which he wrote while in Pella, Macedonia. Euripides died and was also buried in Macedonia.

The official code name given recently from linguistics is:

Ancient Macedonian language : provisional ISO-DIS 639-3.5 XMK).

Subgrouping Code : Ancient Greek language or IEGreekB

Group code: Greek Language or IEGreek.

ANCIENT INSCRIPTIONS

The 6000 inscriptions that are found in Macedonia are freely available for anyone to analyze; as are the texts through the Epigraphical database:

http://epigraphy.packhum.org/inscriptions/search_main.html

What do we notice? All are in the Ancient Greek language of course!

One must note when performing a throughout analysis, that linguistically there is no real distinction between a dialect and a language without a specific factor. People commonly use a political motivator to determine whether a certain ´speech´ is a language or a dialect. Since the Pan-Hellenic area consisted of many small city-states (Attica, Lacedaemon, Corinth, etc.), and larger states (Molossia, Thesprotia, Macedonia, Acarnania, Aetolia, etc.), it was thought at the time, that the people of all those states were speaking different languages, when they were all in fact speaking variations of the same language i.e. Hellenic (or Greek). The most advanced of all Hellenic dialects was the dialect of Attica (Athens) or Attic. When referring to the "Ancient Greek language", the Attic dialect of Ancient Greek is implied, and any comparison of the Macedonian dialect to Ancient Greek is actually a comparison to the Attic dialect.

The difference between Macedonian and Attic was like the difference between Low and High German. Nobody doubts that both are Germanic languages, although they differ slightly. Multi-dialectal linguistic regime is also present in modern-day Italy. The official language of Italy is the Florentine dialect, yet people commonly still speak their own dialects. The same holds true in Modern Greece. The Cretans speak their own dialect, and for many Greeks it is difficult to understand this unique dialect.

As mentioned initially, German linguistic Hoffman, analyzes 40 official Macedonian names found on an inscription from 423 B.C:

""In final analysis it is possible that the name VYRGINON KRASTWNOS is of Thracian origins, while independent remains the name DIRVE.....ALL the other names are BEAUTIFUL, CLEAR, HELLENIC CONSTRUCTIONS and only two of them NEOPTOLEMOS and MELEAGROS could have been loans from the HELLENIC MYTHOLOGY."

Hoffman considers the names of the populations of upper or Western ´Makedonia´ including the Orestians (Kastoria), Eordians (Ptolemais-Arnissa), Tymfaians (Pindos-Konitsa), Elimiotians (Kozani), and Lyngestians (Florina-Monastiri).

He considers and analyzes the names of the King's body-guards, the generals, the administrative employees, the leaders of the ´Makedonian´ cavalry, the leaders of the army, and those of many other common people of the 5th and 4th and even later centuries.

His conclusions?

"THE NAMES OF THE GENUINE MAKEDONIANS AND THOSE BORN OF MAKEDONIAN PARENTS , ESPECIALLY THE NAMES OF THE ELITIC CLASS AND NOBLES,IN THEIR FORMATION AND PHONOLOGY ARE PURELY HELLENIC."

And continues:

""The general Hellenic character of the Makedonians linguistic treasure cannot be disputed even in case some of them might be loans from the Hellenic Mythology or from non-Hellenic myths or for the better pre-Hellenic myths (Teytamos-Marsyas-Seilinos*).

One strong archaeological evidence that depicts which language was spoken by the Ancient Macedonians is the Pella ´katadesmos´ (see picture below). A ´katadesmos´ is a curse, or magic spell, which is inscribed on a lead scroll probably dating to 380 - 350 BC. It was discovered in Pella (at the time capital of Macedon) in 1986; and was published in the Hellenic Dialectology Journal in 1993.



The tab has been dated by the original publishers to the "Mid-4th century BC or slightly earlier (letter forms, spelling)". This dating has been contested by Prof. Edmonds of Bryn Mawr College, who proposes a 3rd century BC date.


The former opinion is concurred by the Oxford Classical Dictionary, in which Professor Olivier Masson writes:

"Yet in contrast with earlier views which made of it {i.e. Macedonian} an Aeolic dialect (O.Hoffmann compared Thessalian) we must by now think of a link with North-West Greek (Locrian, Aetolian, Phocidian, Epirote). This view is supported by the recent discovery at Pella of a curse tablet (4th cent. BC) which may well be the first 'Macedonian' text attested (provisional publication by E.Voutyras; cf. the Bulletin Epigraphique in Rev. Et. Grec. 1994, no.413); the text includes an adverb "opoka" which is not Thessalian." (OCD, 1996, pp 905, 906).

Of the same opinion is James L. O'Neil's (University of Sydney) presentation at the 2005 Conference of the Australasian Society for Classical Studies, entitled "Doric Forms in Macedonian Inscriptions" (abstract):

"A fourth century BC curse tablet from Pella shows word forms which are clearly Doric, but a different form of Doric from any of the west Greek dialects of areas adjoining Macedon. Three other, very brief, fourth century inscriptions are also indubitably Doric. These show that a Doric dialect was spoken in Macedon, as we would expect from the West Greek forms of Greek names found in Macedon. And yet later Macedonian inscriptions are in Koine avoiding both Doric forms and the Macedonian voicing of consonants. The native Macedonian dialect had become unsuitable for written documents."

In English the text of Pella katasemos translates:

On Thetima and Dionysophon the ritual wedding and the marriage I bind by a written spell, as well as (the marriage) of all other women (to him), both widows and maidens, but above all of Thetima; and I entrust (this spell) to Macron and to the daimones. And if I was to ever dig up this tablet and read these words again, only then should Dionysophon marry, not before; may he indeed not take another beside myself, but let me alone grow old by the side of Dionysophon and no one else. I implore you: have pity for [Phila (?)], dear daimones, [for I am indeed bereft (?)] of all my dear ones and abandoned. But please keep this (piece of writing) for my sake so that these events do not happen and wretched Thetima perishes miserably [---] but let me become happy and blessed.

WORDS

The 200 words are the words that recorded from the ancient writers and not those that found in the inscriptions (200 more). The majority are part of the Greek ´syntaxis´ sentences.

Relatively few words of the Macedonian dialect have been preserved, about 154 in fact, and are recorded by Athenaeus and in the Lexicon of Hesychios, who drew them mainly from the work of the Macedonian lexicographer Amerias. It should be noted that Ancient lexicographers did not record all the words of a language or dialect, but only those that presented a certain peculiarity or difficulty in comprehension. For this reason foreign words and idioms are recorded, and thus the proportion of foreign words is not representative of the total vocabulary of the Macedonian dialect. Many of the words which have been treasured as Macedonian occur in all Greek dialects, but in the Macedonian dialect they had a specific meaning and they were recorded by the Ancient lexicographers; for example the word ´υπασπιστής´ (adjutant).

These words that were handed down as Macedonian do not bear any resemblance to the Thracian-Illyrian language. The Macedonian linguistic material (proper names, place-names and common nouns) testifies to the Greek character of the Macedonian dialect as:

The etymology of the majority words is Greek (approx. 90%)

the features and vowel changes are common in Greek and so are the inflections and endings.

As for the few words which are recorded as Macedonian in the Lexicon of Hesyxhios and which are not considered by some to be Greek, it is most likely that they are loan-words, a phenomenon that is observed in all languages, and one which does not put their origin in doubt.

Also, there are another 200 words that found in several inscriptions (Posidipus, Pella katadaesmos, Dervinion papyrus e.t.c.) except of course those that recorded from the Ancient writers (about 154) that has the same characteristics.

CONCLUSION

In summary, we present five facts that prove the Greek origin of the Ancient Macedonian ´language´ (dialect):

Fact 1 - ISO Identification

Ancient Macedonian language (provisional ISO-DIS 639-3.5 XMK).

Subgrouping Code : Ancient Greek language or IEGreekB

Group code: Greek Language or IEGreek.

Fact 2 - Excavated inscriptions

Six-thousand inscriptions - the most famous being the Pella ´katadesmos´ and the ´Dervenion´ Papyrus (both in the Ancient Greek language).

Fact 3 - Words

The known Macedonian words have Greek roots (except very few) according to linguistics that have analyzed the ancient inscriptions (e.g. Pella ´katadesmos´).

Fact 4 - Evidence of non-Greek inscription

There has not yet been found any single non-Greek text; not only in Macedonia but also in the regions that Macedonians have interacted with.

Fact 5 - The Opposing side

None claim the opposite, as there is no evidence of any single Linguistic proof in order to support their theory of non-Greek speaking Macedonians.

Some people from FYROM (namely Stefov, Gandeto etc.) claim that the term ´makedonisti´ (Philotas trial) is what they interpret as "Macedonian language". Obviously, that is clearly wrong!

The term ´makedonisti´ is Greek, which doesn't mean ´Macedonian language´, but ´Macedonian way´ (in this case, of speech). It is a term that is found in many other Greek documents, and not only in the Macedonian case. For example, it can be found as ´attikisti´, implying the ´Attic way of speech´, the attic dialect, or, ´ionisti´ for the ionian dialect, or, ´doristi´ for the doric dialect. In that way, it is easy to reject the misleading FYROM interpretations of such extracts, because they are based on poor logic and on deliberate false interpretation in the translation of the ancient documents.

The Question I now pose to you is: "Was the Ancient Macedonian language (dialect) part of Ancient Greek?"

It is up to you to decide.

Written by Akritas

for MacedoniaOnTheWeb

info@macedonian.com.au

Australian Macedonian Advisory Council

Proud indigenous Macedonians proud Greeks one people, one language, one culture, one country

Κυριακή, 23 Νοεμβρίου 2008

The "Slavic Philhellenic Network" has been established in Skoplje



The registration in court was done yesterday. The aims of the operation “Vardar-Axios” shall be:

1. Restitution of the Slavic identity of FYROM

2. Creation, promoting and archiving publications regarding Greek culture

3. Sponsorship of Classic and Byzantine studies

4. Struggle against Pseudomacedonism

This organization has 4 members, all of them anonymous, with the exception of Vasko. The site of SPN shall be launched in Wednesday 26-XI and it will serve as an online platform for publication and coordination of activities.

Source: MOTW

HISTORY OF MACEDONIA

Παρασκευή, 21 Νοεμβρίου 2008

Risto Stefov and the falsification of Ancient Macedonia History Part IV

Australian Macedonian Advisory Council
November 20, 2008


As we emphatically pointed out in our previous article, the art of commiting provocative falsification and blatant violation of the historical reality finds full use into the propaganda originating from the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM). If we are looking for a pure sample of the deplorable "taking text out of context" method in order to misrepresent a source´s actual position, then one of the best candidates should definitely be one of the latest articles of Risto Stefov, ironically entitled "Greek Australian Advisory Council and the falsification of Ancient Macedonian history Part 9".

For example in one of the most comical writings you could ever read in your lives, as regards to ancient history, the author once more, attempts to isolate and take out of context a certain small number of references taken from the book "Plutarch The Age of Alexander" by Ian-Scott Kilvert.

First and foremost even the source he attempts to forge this time, is crystal clear about the Greek ethnicity of ancient Macedonians. For the sake of materiality, in page 3 of Ian-Scott Kilvert´s "Plutarch The Age of Alexander" - a "special edition" of Nine Lives roughly concomitant with Alexander and his time - we can read:

The Age of Alexander – Nine Greek lives by Plutarch

Right afterwards we read the names of these prominent nine Greeks of which the book deals with their Biographies.

Agesilaus – Pelopidas- Dion – Timoleon – Demosthenes – Phocion – Alexander – Demetrius – Pyrrhus

In other words, two of the Nine Greeks are Macedonian themselves. Inevitably, Risto Stefov continues to pursue a policy of constant self-contradictions since once more he tried to present a source which completely shatters his historical inaccuracies and contrarily to his erroneous claims, proves the Greekness of ancient Macedonians.

Secondly, the author employs a number of selected lines to draw connections to an alleged "implied ethnic distinction" but as usual, he fails to take account of the particular place, time and circumstance these lines apply, which often is crucial to understand what someone really means or intends to. Moreover he also fails to take account of even the other words or lines which immediately surround it with result the overall meaning to be quite different from the author´s agenda. The latter constitutes a blatant case of wilful distortion.



Take a look for instance to the first "unique finding" of Risto Stefov

1] "Alexander was born on the sixth day of the month Hecatombaeon, which the Macedonians call Lous, the same day on which the temple of Artemis at Ephesus was burned down." [p.254

The above quote underscores the ill-informed and quite amateurish notion of ancient history that currently prevails the author. Unfortunately Risto Stefov totally ignores that almost all places in the Greek world had their own distinct Calendars, yet some months were common among them. Quite indicatively if for a moment, someone was inclined to consider the author´s implication as valid then he should also conclude for instance that Delphi was not Greek since the Delphian calendar called the specific month Hyllaios and not Hecatombaeon.

In fact the month Lous/Loios was also a Thessalian month. I denote here that there are also Macedonian months whose names are shared with other Greeks, namely the calendars of Argos, Corinth, Epidaurus, Crete and Rhodes. Argives, Corinthians, Cretans, Epidaurians and Rhodians. In essence the ancient Macedonian calendar emphatically points out the Greekness of ancient Macedonians.

In the same manner, the rest of the absolutely selective and taken out of context, lines in the article of Risto Stefov, rely heavily on outrageous half truths, mainly dealing with the characteristical ignorance of the author with similar statements pertaining to "freed" or "enslaved" Greeks by the Atheneans, Spartans and others abound in ancient sources.

Plutarch "The Age of Alexander"

Penguin Classics

1] On his father´s side Alexander was descended from Hercules through Caranus, and on his mother´s from Aeacus through Neoptolemus: so much is accepted by all authorities without question.

(Plut. 7.2 page 252)

Point of Interest: The fact that Alexander was Greek by both his parents went unquestioned by all authorities]

2] The first was that his general Parmenio had overcome the Illyrians in a great battle, the second that his race-horse had won a victory in the Olympic games, and the third that Alexander had been born.

(Plut. 7.3, page 255)

Philip participated in Olympics during Classical Ages where only Greeks could take place since he was a Greek himself]

3]Philip for example was as proud of his powers of eloquence as any sophist, and took care to have the victories won by his chariots at Olympia stamped upon his coins.

(Plut. 7.4, page 256)

Philip as a proud Greek, had his victories in Olympics stamped on his coins]

4]The person who took on both the title and the role of Pedagogue was an Acarnanian named Lysimachus. He was neither an educated nor a cultivated man but he managed to ingratiate himself by calling Philip Peleus, Alexander Achilles, and himself Phoenix, and he held the second place in the prince´s household.

(Plut. 7.5, page 257)

The love of Philip and Alexander for anything Greek is apparent]

5]Besides this he considered that the task of training and educating his son was too important to be entrusted to the ordinary run of teachers of poetry, music and general education: it required as Sophocles puts it:

The rudder´s guidance and the curb´s restraint,

and so he sent for Aristotle, the most famous and learned of the philosophers of the time and rewarded him with the generocity that his reputation deserved.

(Plut. 7.7, page 258)

One of the most famous Greek philosophers, Aristotle was entrusted by Philip with the task of training and educating his son]

6] He [Alexander] regarded the Iliad as a handbook of the art of war and took with him on his campaigns a text annotated by Aristotle, which became as "the casket copy" and which he always kept under his pillow together with his dagger. When his campaigns had taken him far into the interior of Asia and he could find no other books, he ordered his treasurer Harpalus to send him some. Harpalus sent him the histories of Philistus, many of the tragedies of Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides and the dithyrambic poems of Telestes and Philoxenus.

(Plut 7.8, pages 259-260)

Alexander never hide his love for anything Greek]

7] During this period he [Alexander] defeated the Maedi who had risen in revolt, captured their city, drove out its barbarous inhabitants, established a colony of Greeks assembled from various regions and named it Alexandroupolis.

Plut. 7.9, page 260)

Here we have undisputed evidence of Macedonia´s Greekness. On one hand, the term "barbarians" is used only for Maedi, not Macedonians while on the other hand Alexander of course establishes a Greek colony since apparently he is Greek himself.]

7]There he [Philip] scolded his son and angrily reproached him for behaving so ignobly and so unworthily of his position as to wish to marry the daughter of a mere Carian, who was no more than the slave of a barbarian king.

(Plut. 7.10, page 262)

Point of interest: Philip uses the term barbarian for a foreign king. Its obvious Philip was Greek, otherwise he wouldnt use at all the derogatory remark if he was "barbarian" himself]

8]The neighbouring barbarian tribes were eager to throw off the Macedonian yoke and longed for the rule of their native kings.

(Plut. 7.11, page 263)

The difference between the "neighbouring barbarian tribes" and Macedonians is clear.]

9]As for the barbarian tribes they [Macedonians] considered that he [Alexander] should try to win them back to their allegiance by using milder methods.


(Plut. 7.11, page 263)

Again, Barbarians are being distinguished from Macedonians, even by Macedonians themselves]

10]In the previous year a congress of the Greek states had been held at the Isthmus of Corinth: here a vote had been passed that the states should join forces with Alexander in invading Persia and that he should be commander-in-chief of the expedition. Many of the Greek statesmen and philosophers visited him to offer their congratulations…

(Plut. 7.14, page 266)

Macedonia as a greek state took part in the congress held at Isthmus of Corinth. Alexander was voted to be commander-in-chief while many Greek statesmen and philosophers showed their joy about the event by offering him their congratulations.]

11] Once arrived in Asia, he [Alexander] went up to Troy, sacrificed to Athena and poured libations to the heroes of the Greek army. He annointed with oil the column which marks the grave of Achilles, ran a race by it naked with his companions, as the custom is, and then crowned it with a wreath: he also remarked that Achilles was happy in having found a faithful friend while he lived and a great poet to sing of his deeds after his death. While he was walking about the city and looking at its ancient remains, somebody asked him whether he wished to see the lyre which had once belonged to Paris. I think nothing of that lyre, he said, but i wish i could see Achilles´ lyre, which he played when he sang of the glorious deeds of brave men.

(Plut. 7.15, page 268)

First thing Alexander did while being in Asia was to honour the Greek heroes and his own ancestor Achilles]



12] "At the same time he [Alexander] was anxious to give the other Greek states a share in the victory. He therefore sent the Atheneans in particular three hundred of the shields captured from the enemy and over the rest of the spoils he had this proud inscription engraved:

Alexander, the son of Philip, and all the Greeks, with the exception of the Spartans, won these spoils of war from the barbarians who dwell in Asia."

(Plut. 7.16, page 270)

Needless to say much about it. Things are pretty clear. Alexander's inscription itself reveals Macedonians are Greeks]

13] It is said that there was a spring near the city of Xanthus in the province of Lycia, which at this moment overflowed and cast up from its depths a bronze tablet: this was inscribed with ancient characters which foretold tha the empire of the Persians would be destroyed by the Greeks. Alexander was encouraged by this prophecy and pressed on to clear the coast of Asia Minor as far as Cilicia and Phoenicia.

(Plut. 7.17, page 270)

No reason Alexander to be enouraged unless he was Greek himself. Another undisputable evidence of his Greekness]

14]he [Alexander] managed to extend it round the enemy´s left, outflanked it, and fighting in the foremost ranks, put the barbarians to flight.

(Plut. 7.20, page 274)

The dinstiction between Macedonians and Barbarians is obvious]

15] It was here that the Macedonians received their first taste of gold and silver and women and of the luxury of the Barbarian way of life.

(Plut 7.24, page 278)

Macedonians couldnt receive their first taste of the luxury of the Barbarian way of life if they were Barbarians themselves]

16] he [Alexander] dshed to the nearest camp fire, dispatched with his dagger the two barbarians who were sitting by it

(Plut. 7.24, page 280)

Another evidence Macedonians were Greeks and certainly not Barbarians]

17]One day a casket was brought to him which was regarded by those who were in charge of Darius´ baggage and treasure as the most valuable item of all and so Alexander asked his friends what he should keep in it as his own most precious possesion. Many different suggestions were put forward, and finally Alexander said he intended to keep his copy of Iliad there.

(Plut. 7.26, page 281)

Alexander´s love for anything Greek was overwhelming. He considered Iliad as his most precious possession.]

18]According to this story, after Alexander had conquered Egypt, he was anxious to found a great and populous Greek city there, to be called after him.

(Plut. 7.26, page 281)

Alexander as a Greek himself founded Greek cities]

19] Others say that the Priest, who wished as a mark of courtesy to address him with the Greek Phrase ´O, paidion´ (O, My son)…

(Plut. 7.27, page 283-4)



20] On this occasion, Alexander gave a long address to the Thessalians and the rest of the Greeks. They acclaimed by shouting for him to lead them against the barbarians and at this he shifted his lance into his left hand, so Callisthenes tells us, and raising his right be called upon the gods and prayed that he were really the son of Zeus they should protect and encourage the Greeks.

(Plut. 7.33, page 290)

Greek soldiers couldnt have shouted to Alexander to lead them against the Barbarians if him and his Macedonians were Barbarians themselves. Alexander´s pray includes Macedonians to the rest of Greeks.]

21]To the Plataeans in particular he [Alexander] wrote that he would rebuild their city because their ancestors had allowed the Greeks to make their territory the seat of war in the struggle for their common freedom. He also sent a share of the spoils to the people of Croton in Italy in honour of the spirit and valour shown by their athlete Phayllus: this man when the rest of the Greeks in Italy had refused to give any help to their compatriots in the Persian wars, he fitted out a ship at his own expense and sailed with it to Salamis to share in the common danger.

(Plut. 7.34, page 291)

22] During the advance across Persis the Greeks massacred great numbers of their prisoners, and Alexander has himself recorded that he gave orders for the Persians to be slaughtered because he thought that such an example would help his cause.

(Plut. 7.37, page 294)

Macedonians are recorded by Plutarch as Greeks]

23]Alexander stopped and spoke to it [Xerxes Statue] as though it was alive. ´Shall i pass by and leave you lying there because of the expedition you led against Greece, or shall i set you up again because of your magnanimity and your virtues in other respects?´

(Plut. 7.37, page 294)

Xerxes statue was toppled by Macedonians and was left in the ground. This spontaneous action of Macedonians, plus Alexander´s words reveal how much Macedonians wanted to revenge Persia through this Panhellenic expedition.]

24] Demaratus the Corinthian, who was much attached to Alexander, as he had been to his father, began to weep, as old men are aprt to do, and exclaimed that any Greek who had died before that day had missed one of the greatest pleasures in life by not seeing Alexander seated on the throne of Darius.

(Plut. 7.37, page 295)

Greeks wouldnt have missed this great pleasure in life to see Alexander seated on Darius throne if he wasnt Greek himself]

25]She wanted to put a torch to the building herself in full view of Alexander, so that posterity should know that the women who followed Alexander had taken a more terrible revenge for the wrongs of Greece than all the famous commanders of earlier times by land or sea. Her speech was greeted wit wild applause and the king´s companions excitedly urged him on until at last he allowed himself to be persuaded, leaped to his feet and with a garland on his head and a torch in his hand led the way.

(Plut. 7.38, page 295)

26] From this point he advanced into Parthia, and it was here during a pause in the campaign that he first began to wear barbarian dress.

(Plut. 7.45, page 301)

So Macedonian dresses were Hellenic since in Parthia was the FIRST time Alexander began to wear BARBARIAN dresses]

27]However he didnt go so far as to adopt the Median costume, which was altogether barbaric and outlandish.

(Plut. 7.45, page 302)

More evidence of the greekness of Macedonians. The remark about the Median costume being Barbaric wouldnt make sense if Macedonian costume was Barbaric too. Here we have another dinstinction between Barbaric and Macedonian (Greek) costume]

28]For this reason he [Alexander] selected thirty thousand boys and gave orders that they should be taught to speak the Greek language and to use Macedonian weapons and he appointed a large number of instructors to train them.

(Plut. 7.47, page 303)

Alexander spread everywhere the Greek language since he was a Greek himself. There is no reason or even an example of a conqueror in classical ages to spread a "foreign" language but solely his own.]



29]The barbarians were encouraged by the feeling of partnership which their alliance created, and they were completely won over by Alexander´s moderation and courtesy..

(Plut. 7.47, page 304)

Again a clear dinstiction between barbarians and Macedonians]

30]After the company had drunk a good deal somebody began to sing the verse of a man named Pranichus which had been written to humiliate and make fun of some Macedonian commanders who had recently been defeated by the Barbarians.

(Plut. 7.50, page 307)

The dinstiction between Macedonian commanders and Barbarians is more than obvious]

31]Callisthenes then turned to the other side of the picture and delivered a long list of home truths about the Macedonians, pointing out that the rise of Philip´s power had been brought about by the divisions among the rest of the Greeks,

(Plut. 7.53, page 311)

The evidence of the Greekness of Macedonians is striking. Macedonians and the rest of Greeks]

32]In the meantime Demaratus of Corinth, although he was by now an old man, was eager to visit Alexander and when the king had received him Demaratus declared that those Greeks who had died before they could see Alexander seated on the throne of Darius had missed one of the greatest pleasures in teh world.

(Plut. 7.56, page 313)

No reason for those Greeks to "miss one of the greatest pleasures in the world when they when they would see Alexander seated in Darius throne if Alexander was not Greek]

33]For example he put to death Menander, one of the Companions because he had been placed in command of a garrison and had refused to remain there, and he shot down with his own hand one the Barbarians named Orsodates who had rebelled against him .

(Plut. 7.57, page 314)

Clear Dinstiction between the Macedonian Menander and the Barbarian Orsodates.]

34] He [Alexander] also set up altars for the gods of Greece and eve down to the present day the kings of the Praesii whenever they cross the river do honour to these and offer sacrifice on them in the Greek fashion.

(Plut. 7.62, page 320)

Another evidence Alexander and Macedonians worshipped the Greek Pantheon]

35] The ladder was smashed so that no more Macedonians could join him and the barbarians began to gather inside along the bottom of the wall and to shoot at him from below.

(Plut. 7.63, page 320)

Clear Dinstiction between the Macedonians and Barbarians]



36]Both men were wounded and Limnaeus was killed, but Peucestas stood firm wile Alexander killed the Barbarian with his own hand. But he was wounded over and over again and at last received a blow on the neck from a club which forced him to lean against the wall, although he still faced his assialants, At this moment the Macedonians swarmed round him..

(Plut. 7.63, page 321)

Clear Dinstiction between the Macedonians and Barbarians]

37] Nevertheless the prince Taxiles awas able to persuade Clanaus to visit Alexander. His real name was PShines but because he greeted everyone he met not with the Greek salutation chairete but with the Indian word cale, the Greeks called him Calanus.

(Plut. 7.65, page 323)

38] Not long afterwards Alexander discovered tha the tomb of Cyrus had been plundered and had the offender put to death, enen though he was a prominent Macedonian from Pella named Polymachus. When he read the inscription on the tomb he ordered it to be repeated below in Greek characters.

(Plut. 7.69, page 326)

39] The thirty thousand boys whom he had left behind to be given a Greek education and military traning had now grown into active and handsome men and had developed a wonderful skill and agilit in their military exercises.

(Plut. 7.71, page 328)

40] The other, Cassander, had only lately arrived in Babylon and when he saw some of the barbarians prostrate themselves before the king he burst into loud and disrespectful laughter for he had been brought up as a Greek and had never seen such a spectacle in his life.

(Plut. 7.74, page 331)

Plutarch - Moralia, "On the Fortune of Alexander"

"But he said, `If I were not Alexandros, I should be Diogenes´; that is to say: `If it were not my purpose to combine barbarian things with things Hellenic, to traverse and civilize every every continent, to search out the uttermost parts of land and sea, to push the bounds of Macedonia to the farthest Ocean, and to diseminate and shower the blessings of the Hellenic justice and peace over every nation, I should not be content to sit quietly in the luxury of idle power, but I should emulate the frugality of Diogenes. But as things are, forgive me Diogenes, that I imitate Herakles, and emulate Perseus, and follow in the footsteps of Dionysos, the divine author and progenitor of my family, and desire that victorius Hellenes should dance again in India and revive the memory of the Bacchic revels among the savage mountain tribes beyond the Kaukasos…´"

(Plutarchos, On the Fortune of Alexander, 332 a-b)

"Yet through Alexander, Bactria and the Caucasus learned to revere the gods of the Hellenes … Alexander established more than seventy cities among savage tribes, and sowed all Asia with Hellenic magistracies … Egypt would not have its Alexandria, nor Mesopotamia its Seleucia, nor Sogdiana its Prophthasia, nor India its Bucephalia, nor the Caucasus a Hellenic city, for by the founding of cities in these places savagery was extinguished and the worse element, gaining familiarity with the better, changed under its influence.´"

(Plutarchos Moralia. On the Fortune of Alexander, I, 328D, 329A)

"What spectator… would not exclaim… that through Fortune the foreign host was prevailing beyond its deserts, but through Virtue the Hellenes were holding out beyond their ability? And if the ones [i.e., the enemy] gains the upper hand, this will be the work of Fortune or of some jealous deity or of divine retribution; but if the others [i.e. the Hellenes] prevail, it will be Virtue and daring, friendship and fidelity, that will win the guerdon of victory? these were, in fact, the only support that Alexander had with him at this time, since Forune had put a barrier between him and the rest of his forces and equipment, fleets, horse, and camp. Finally, the Macedonians routed the barbarians, and, when they had fallen, pulled down their city on their heads. "

Plutarch, On the Fortune of Alexander, 344 e-f

Again, however, Fortune stirred up Thebes against him, and thrust in his pathway a war with Greeks, and the dread necessity of punishing, by means of slaughter and fire and sword, men that were his kith and kin, a necessity which had a most unpleasant ending.

Plutarch, Virtue, 11]

For Alexander did not follow Aristotles advice to treat the Greeks as if he were their leader, and other peoples as if he were their master; to have regard for the Greeks as for friends and kindred, but to conduct himself toward other peoples as though they were plants or animals; for to do so would have been to cumber his leadership with numerous battles and banishments and festering seditions. But, as he believed that he came as a heaven sent governor to all, and as a mediator for the whole world, those whom he could not persuade to unite with him, he conquered by force of arms, and he brought together into one body all men everywhere, uniting and mixing in one great loving‐cup, as it were, mens lives, their characters, their marriages, their very habits of life.

He bade them all consider as their fatherland the whole inhabited earth, as their stronghold and protection his camp, as akin to them all good men, and as foreigners only the wicked; they should not distinguish between Grecian and foreigner by Grecian cloak and targe, or scimitar and jacket; but the distinguishing mark of the Grecian should be seen in virtue, and that of the foreigner in iniquity; clothing and food, marriage and manner of life they should regard as common to all, being blended into one by ties of blood and children.

Plutarch, Fortune, 6]

A comparison of Alexander with Pericles:

"Pericles collected tribute from the Greeks and with the money adorned the Acropolis with temples; but Alexander captured the riches of barbarians and sent them to Greece with orders that ten thousand talents be used to construct temples for the gods."

On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander, II, 13

Alexander´s assault on the citadel of the Mallians:

"…that through Fortune the foreign host was prevailing beyond its deserts, but through Virtue the Greeks were holding out beyond their ability? And if the enemy gains the upper hand, this will be the work of Fortune or of some jealous deity or of divine retribution; but if the Greeks prevail, it will be Virtue and daring, friendship and fidelity, that will win the guerdon of victory? These were, in fact, the only support that Alexander had with him at this time, since Fortune had put a barrier between him and the rest of his forces and equipment, fleets, horse, and camp.Finally, the Macedonians routed the barbarians, and, when they had fallen, pulled down their city on their heads."

On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander, II, 13

In conquering and civilising the barbarians, both the cities established and the form of government, law and culture is Greek:

"Yet no such busy wars as these employed their time in civilizing wild and barbarous kings, in building Grecian cities among rude and unpolished nations, nor in settling government and peace among people that lived without humanity or control of law."

On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander, I, 4

"But Alexander, building above seventy cities among the barbarous nations, and as it were showing the Grecian customs and constitutions all over Asia, quite weaned them from their former wild and savage manner of living."

On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander, I, 5

"It may, however, be more justly averred of those whom Alexander subdued, had they not been vanquished, they had never been civilized. Egypt had not vaunted her Alexandria, nor Mesopotamia her Seleucia; Sogdiana had not gloried in her Propthasia, nor the Indians boasted their Bucephalia, nor Caucasus its neighboring Grecian city; by the founding of all which barbarism was extinguished and custom changed the worse into better."

On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander, I, 5

"But it behooves us also, as it were, to make a new coin, and to stamp a new face of Grecian civility upon the barbarian metal."

On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander, I, 5

In the treatment and distinguishment of Greeks and barbarians:

"But Alexander made good his words by his deeds; for he did not, as Aristotle advised him, rule the Grecians like a moderate prince and insult over the barbarians like an absolute tyrant; nor did he take particular care of the first as his friends and domestics, and scorn the latter as mere brutes and vegetables…"

On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander, I, 6

"Nor would he that Greeks and barbarians should be distinguished by long garments, targets, scimitars, or turbans; but that the Grecians should be known by their virtue and courage, and the barbarians by their vices and their cowardice…"

On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander, I, 6

"But I would gladly have been a spectator of those majestic and sacred nuptials, when, after he had betrothed together a hundred Persian brides and a hundred Macedonian and Greek bridegrooms, he placed them all at one common table within the compass of one pavilion embroidered with gold, as being all of the same family…"

On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander, I, 7

Next Plutarch tells us of the imposition of Greek religion:

"Most admirable philosophy! which induced the Indians to worship the Grecian Deities…"

On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander, I, 5

"But Alexander engaged both Bactria and Caucasus to worship the Grecian Gods, which they had never known before."

On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander, I, 5

Of Alexander´s descent, which would not be seen as "noble" in Plutarch´s eyes if it was not Greek:

"…the nobility of his Macedonian extraction…"

On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander, I, 9

And the ultimate revenge, to see a Greek king on the throne of Persia:

"Therefore it was that Demaratus the Corinthian, an acquaintance and friend of Philip, when he beheld Alexander in Susa, bursting into tears of more than ordinary joy, bewailed the deceased Greeks, who, as he said, had been bereaved of the greatest blessing on earth, for that they had not seen Alexander sitting upon the throne of Darius."

On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander, I, 7

Conclusion:

From the side of his father, Alexander is shown clearly as descendant of Heracles and from his mother side a descendant of Aeacos. (Alex 2.1).

He is educated by Aristotle, uses as his permanent favourite book the Iliad of Homer (see Alex 8,2, 26.2-3) but wishes also other Greek books to be sent to him.

The inscription of Alexander with the first booty is clear and Macedonians are included as Greeks. (see Alex.16.18)

After conquering Egypt Alexander wishes to found "a great Greek city with many people" (Alex. 26.4 and Moralia 328B). The Priest of Ammon adresses Alexander in Greek (Alex. 27.9).

In Alexander´s Live, Macedonians are included in the general Greek race and those who are opposed to Persians and the rest of Barbarian tribes of Asia are called greeks and not Macedonians (Alex. 33.1-4)

Alexander campaigns in Asia in the name of Greeks in order to revenge the campaign of Xerxes against Greece (see Alex. 37.5, 38.4)

Before Gaugamela, Alexander encourages mainly Greeks and from Greeks he is being encouraged too (see Alex. 33.1)

After the final defeat of Darius he chooses 30,000 young Persians and orders those to be educated in Greek (see Alex. 47.6)

In the meantime he wishes to please all the Greeks by abolishing tyrranies, giving autonomy, urging Plateans to rebuild their city, sending booty even to Krotoniates in order to honour the participation of their ancestor Faylos in Medika (Alex. 34.2-3)

Alexander´s behaviour to Greeks is entirelly different from his behaviour to Barbarians. (see Alex 28.1)

Plutarch considered Macedonians as Greeks by distinguishing them always from Barbarians. (see Cleomenes 27.3; 30.1-3; Pyrrhus 16.8; Alexander 9.1;11.3; 11.5; 16.15; 16.18; 20.11;24.13; 28.11; 33.1; 33.4; 35.2; 38.7)

Like we can easily realize from this plethora of hard evidence, Plutarch draws the same conclusion as the other ancient historians and verifies the Greekness of ancient Macedonians. Following Polybius, neither Plutarch is helpful at all to the petty efforts of the Slavs from FYROM who are comically inclined to believe that if they could ever disprove the Greekness of ancient Macedonians, their self-made mythical link to ancient Macedonians will be somehow validated.

Written by Ptolemy MOTW

History-of-Macedonia.com

Presented & produced by Truth Bearer & Makedonia25

AUSTRALIAN MACEDONIAN ADVISORY COUNCIL (AMAC)

Australian Macedonian Advisory Council

Proud indigenous Macedonians proud Greeks one people,one language,one country,one culture..